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Level 44

Covalent Bonding

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Covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Diatomic molecule
A molecule consisting of 2 atoms of the same element; H O F Br I N Cl
What group in the periodic table are monatomic ?
The noble gases, which have a filled outer shell, exist as single atoms. Group 8A (furthest on the right).
Molecular compounds tend to have LOWER melting and boiling points than ionic compounds.
When compared to ionic compounds, molecular compounds have what kind of melting or boiling points?
Molecular Structure
shows the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule; the order and shape of how atoms are bonded. Ex, H2O does NOT show this, but the image attached does
Ionic bonds.
What kind of bonds involve electron transfer?
covalent bonds
What kind of bonds involve a tug of war "sharing" of electrons?
One pair, which is 2 electrons.
A single covalent bond involves sharing how many electrons?
What is an unshared pair?
Valence electrons not shared between, atoms.
Double covalent bonds.
What type of bonds does carbon form with the 2 oxygen atoms in CO2?
What is a coordinate covalent bond?
A bond in which one atom contributes both electrons to the bond.
Polyatomic Ion
A covalently bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and acts as a unit ex: sulfate (-2 charge)
Bond Dissociation Energy
Energy required to break a covalent bond
VESPR Theory
Valance electron shell pair repulsion theory; repulsion between electron pairs causes shapes to adjust so that unshared electron pairs stay as far apart as possible
3 dimensional shape showing one central atom with 4 atoms coming off of it. Tetra means four!
2 bonds, 1 pair
How do unshared pairs of electron affect the shapes of molecules?
Unshared pairs of electrons repel each other so the molecule is shaped so that they stay as far away as possible. Ex: in water the unshared pair of the O forces the H's to …
Linear shape
180 degrees; examples include CO2 and HCN
Molecular shapes
VESPR theory is best used to predict _______?
ionic, covalent.
Intermolecular attractions are weaker than either _______ bonds or _______ bonds.
Van DerWaals Forces
The weakest attractions between molecules. Van der waals forces consist of:
Dispersion Forces
All molecules are attracted to 1 another because the electrons of each molecule are attracted to protons of nuclei of nearby molecules.
dipole interactions
When the negative region of one is attracted to the positive region of another; an example of intermolecular forces
hydrogen bonds
attraction between molecules that have hydrogen bonded to a small, high en atom
trigonal planar
a molecule whose shape is triangular and in one plane; ex: BH3, BF3
a molecule with one unshared pair and 3 atoms coming off of a central atom. Ex: NH3
intermolecular force
attractions BETWEEN molecules; determines whether a substance is gas, liquid or solid at room temperature
polar molecule
A _______ is one whose centers of positive and negative charge do not coincide. Thus, a polar molecule has a positive side and a negative side.
nonpolar molecule
molecule in which atoms have equal electronegativies so electrons spend equal amounts of time next to each atom
Single bond
1 pair of shared electrons
double bond
2 atoms share 4 electrons (2 pairs)
triple bond
2 atoms share 6 electrons (3 pair)