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(-) Gain an electron
(+) Lose an electron
A charged atom
a bond that results from electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. The cation is positively charged, while the anion is negatively charged.
lose or gain electrons
describe two ways that an ion forms from an atom
loss of electron
Chlorite OCL is reduced to
loss of two electrons
gain of two electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom;available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
chemists used the _______ of elements to sort them into groups
representative elements' group number
How can you determine the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element?
electron dot structures
diagrams that show valence electrons as dots around a chemical symbol
Although ionic compounds are composed of ions, they are _______.
lowest whole-number ration of ions in an ionic compound
ion formed from a single atom
A solid that is orderly arranged. Ex: Desk
number of ions of opposited charge that surround the ion in a crystall
ionic compounds can _______ an electric current when melted or dissolve in water
How many valence electrons are in an atom of phosphorus
Simple Molecules Lewis Molecules rules
gives up electrons.
How does calcium obey the octet rule when reacting to form compounds?
How many electrons does silver have to give up in order to achieve a pseudo-noble-gas electron configuration
A plot of reactant concentration versus time gives a straight line. What is the order of the rxn for this reactant?
highest level of an atom is filled
What type of electron configuration makes an atom stable and not likely to react.
electron dot diagram
This is a model of an atom in which each dot represents a valence electron.
subatomic negatively charged particle, orbiting the nucleus.
each atom ends up with a more stable electron arrangement
What is the result of a sodium atom transferring an electron to a chlorine atom
The lower the ionization energy, the easier it is to __ an electron from an atom.
What is the charge of a chloride ion in the chemical formula MgCl>2
ratio of ions
Two factors that determine the arrangement of ions in an ionic crystal are _______ and the relative sizes of the ions.
if a substance gives up electrons readily it is said to be a //// reducing agent
arrangement of ions
The shape of an ionic crystal lattice depends on the arrangement of ions in its rigid framework, or lattice.
How are crystals classified into groups?
By losing one valence electron, a sodium atom achieves the same electron arrangement as an atom of _______
a force that holds groups of 2 or more atoms together and allows them to function as a unit
Basic building block of all matter.
A chemical formula is a qualitative and quantitative description of the composition of a pure substance, either an **element or a compound**
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
Elements for which the 2nd ionization energy is MUCH higher than the first.
A negatively charged subatomic particle located in the electron cloud outside the nucleus. It determines how atoms combine with other atoms.
An atom of a particular element that contains a different number of neutrons
An isotope that breaks up into smaller atoms and give off radiation when it happens
Dot and cross
A diagram to show where electrons come from and go to
An atom that has GAINED an electron
An atom that has GAINED electrons
3D system of points designating the centers of components (atoms, ions, molecules) that makes up the substance