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Level 36

Properties of Chemical Bonds


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ionic
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Covalent
Bonding Characteristic: Electrons are shared between 2 or 3 elements or compounds
Metallic
Bonding Characteristic: Sharing of electrons on a large scale
Ionic 1
Transfer of Electrons
Ionic 2
made of a metal and non metal, or cation and anion.
Ionic 3
Has a crystal lattice structure
Covalent 1
Sharing of Electrons
Covalent 2
Made of 2 nonmetals, or anion plus anion
Covalent 3
Has a molecule structure
Metallic 1
Delocalized electrons (electrons that have been removed from their proper location)
Metallic 2
Made of metal cations
Metallic 3
Has a metallic crystal structure
Network Covalent 1
can be described as "giant covalent structures". occurs when many atoms form covalent bonds in a network
Usually nonmetals
Network Covalent 2
Network Covalent 3
Has a 3-dimensional network or lattice
Anion
(-) Gain an electron
bond
a force that holds groups of 2 or more atoms together and allows them to function as a unit
Bond Dipole
The direction and magnitude of the charge separation in a bond.
bond length
the average distance between 2 bonded atoms
Bond Strength
The amount of energy necessary to break a bond. This energy is a measure of how hard it is to break a bond.
Cation
(+) Lose an electron
Closed Shell
An electron configuration with a full valence shell.
Coulomb's Law
A mathematical formula whose consequence is that negatively and positively charged particles attract each other and similarly charged species repel each other.
Covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Electronegativity
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
ion
A charged atom
Ionic Bond
a bond that results from electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. The cation is positively charged, while the anion is negatively charged.
Open Shell
An electron configuration with a partially filled valence shell.
Valence Shell
The orbitals with the highest occupied principle quantum number.
molecule
2 or more atoms of same or different kinds that are chemically combined.
chemical formula
show the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of the substance
Alkali Metal
They are found in Group 1. They are really reactive. They have only 1 electron in their outer shells
Alkaline Earth Metal
They are found in Group 2. They all have an oxidation number of +2. They are very reactive.
Transition Metals
Any element in a "B" group (#3-12) on the periodic table
Halogens
Elements that become stable when they acquire 1 e-
Noble gases
Elements in group 8A of the periodic table. Have no charge and are gases under normal conditions. (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon)
Chemical Bond
An attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or groups of atoms in a molecule or compound.
Crystals
solids whose particles are arranged in a lattice structure
Polyatomic Ion
A covalently bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and acts as a unit ex: sulfate (-2 charge)
Lewis Dot / Electron Dot Diagram
a model that uses electron-dot structures to show how electrons are arranged in molecules
alloy
a material made of elements that has metallic properties. Usually to make a substance superior than its elemental components
octet rule
a concept of chemical bonding theory that is based on the assumption that atoms tend to have either empty valance shells or full valence shells of eight electrons
ionic compound
a compound composed of positive and negative ions; most commonly between metals and non-metals
electron configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom
valence electron
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
metallic bond
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
ductile
A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire
lustrous
SHINING
halide ion
a negative ion formed when a halogen atom gains an electron
Chemical bonding models
The chemical bonding model, demonstrates three types of bonding. Ionic bonding, which is between a metal and a non-metal. Covalent bonding, which is between non-metals and metallic bonding which is between metals.
Electronegativity trends
Electronegativity increases from left to right and decreases from top to bottom.
Covalent electronegativity
0.0 to 0.4
0.4-1.7
polar covalent eletronegativity
1.7-3.3
ionic electronegativity
electron sea model
regular array of metals in a "sea" of electrons
Properties of Metals
1)The stronger the bond the higher the melting and boiling point
alloys
(solid solutions)formed when two or more metals or non-metals are combined together
Substitutional alloys
A metal that gets mixed with another metal that is relatively the same size, so this new metal ions take place of the other metals ions.
interstitial alloys
A metal that gets mixed with another metal that is smaller than the first metal. This second metal fits in-between the connections of the first metals ions.
ionic crystals
Ionic bonded compounds exist as crystal lattice structures. This structures exist with alternating negative and positive ions. Its size and charge will affect the type of structure that will form.
Ionic bonding
Bonding between metals and nonmetals
Covalent bonding
Bonding between nonmetals
Free radicals
Are atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons, they are very reactive substances.
Resonance
when you force a vibration onto an object that matches it's natural frequency
Lewis Structure exceptions
Atoms that do not follow the Lewis theory of bonding. There are three ways to be an exception.
VSEPR theory
a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory:
This is the model used to predict the molecular shape. It is based on the repulsion theory. It predicts electron grouping. (Linear, trigonal planner, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral)
Valence bond theory:
Quantum mechanical model of bonding. Believes that covalent bonds form when two unfilled orbitals with opposite spins overlap and that bonding orbitals contain 2 electrons.
Sigma bond:
A direct overlap of orbitals between s and p orbitals. A bond where the line of electron density is concentrated symmetrically along the line of connecting the two atoms.
Pi Bond:
Formed once a double or triple bond is formed, exits above and below the internuclear axis.
Allotropes
Compounds of the same element that have different physical properities.
Network solids
covalent bonded atoms in a continuous 2 or 3 dimensional array
intermolecular forces
electrical forces that exist between molecules that would cause one molecule to influence another;
dipole-dipole forces
A force of attraction between polar molecules.
ion dipole forces
A force of attraction between partial charges on polar molecules and ions
induced dipole
A non-polar molecule that has induced dipole due to nearby ion or molecule.
Dispersion Forces
All molecules are attracted to 1 another because the electrons of each molecule are attracted to protons of nuclei of nearby molecules.
Thomson model
Is the plum pudding theory, an atom is a positively charged mass with negatively charged electrons within it.
Some particles deflected at large angles.
Rutherford's outcome from his experiment with Alpha particles
Rutherford's atomic model
An atom has a positively charged nucleus at the centre with electrons in motion surrounding the nucleus.
Atomic spectra
When electrons of an atom are excited they emit light by losing energy and going done in orbitals
The Bohr Model limitations
It could only explain single electron systems
Atomic Orbital
A mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.[1] This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron o…
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Can't know an electrons precise position and its velocity at the same time.
4 quantum numbers
Describe orbital energy levels and orbital shapes
n
amount of gas in moles
L
liter
ml
Anywhere between + or - l
Ms
describes the orientation of the axis
Quantum numbers for electrons in a 2s orbital
n=2, l=0,1 Ml= -2,-1,0,1 or 2 Ms= 1/2 or -1/2
n2
formula to figure out the number of orbitals possible
2n2
formula to figure out the number of electrons per orbital
Oxygen
1s2 2s2 2p2
fluorine
1s2 2s2 2p5
nitrogen
1s2 2s2 2p3
atomic radius trend
decreases from left to right, increases from top to bottom
Ionization Energy
Energy needed to remove an electron from the valence shell of an atom - how easily an atom can become an ion (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A METAL)
ionization energy trend
decreases from top to bottom, increases from left to right