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Level 34

Introduction to Chemical Bonding

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Chemical Bond
An attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or groups of atoms in a molecule or compound.
bond energy
energy required to break a bond
combinations held by bonds; few are independent
most atoms exist as what type of particles
the way they bond
properties of substances are affected by what
how bonds are formed
obtaining stable electron configuration, either by sharing or transferring electrons
ionic bonds
form from the attraction of oppositely charged ions.
Covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
large difference
en of ionic atoms
similar en
en of covalent atoms
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which a shared pair of electrons is held more closely by one of the atoms
non polar covalent
regular covalent where two identical nonmetals (with near identical en) equally share electrons
polar molecules hold what overall charge
neutral (partial charges from unequal sharing still are considered polar)
hydrogen bonds
attraction between molecules that have hydrogen bonded to a small, high en atom
metallic bond
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
Bond polarity
In covalent bonds, the electrons may not necessarily be shared equally between two atoms. _______helps describe unequal sharing of electrons in the bond.
how are different metals like when metalically bonded
pure metals and alloys will have distinct properties in malleablitly, ductility, ionization, conduction, melting pt
metals are hard to separate but can still do what
slide past each other easily because they give up electrons easily
large numbers of metal atoms don't use "covalent bonds" instead they what
pool their valence electrons into an even sea that is delocalized and they move freely through the metal piece
tendency of atom to attract shared electrons to itself
en increases going
across periodic table and up group
<|en 0
covalent or nonpolar
polar covalent
<| en 0.4-1.9
<| 2.0+
Dipole moment
A measure of molecular polarity
what type of molecule is water
polar and it has dipole moment
significance of water as polar
can attract to other polars
noble gases as they relate to stability
metals lose to gain config of previous ng
ratio of ions present
formula of ionic compounds always gives
cations are smaller anions are bigger
cations and anions as they relate to parents
Polyatomic Ions
A group of atoms covalently bonded together which together have a charge that comes from either gained or lost electrons to gain an octet
Ionic bonding
Bonding between metals and nonmetals
Covalent bonding
Bonding between nonmetals
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
Bonding Characteristic: Electrons are shared between 2 or 3 elements or compounds
Polar-Covalent Bonds
If the Electronegativity difference between two atoms is between 0.3 and 1.7
Non-polar Covalent
A covalent bond, usually between diatomic molecules, that has an overall electro-negativity of less than 0.3. Oxygen, Nitrogen, Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Hydrogen are perfect examples.
2 or more atoms of same or different kinds that are chemically combined.
Molecular Formulas
The chemical formulas of covalently bonded substances
bond length
the average distance between 2 bonded atoms
The elements bromine, iodine, nitrogen, chlorine, hydrogen, oxygen, and fluorine are always in pairs (diatomic)
Structural formula
A structural formula shows the connectivity of the atoms in the molecule.
A substance with repeating patterns or atoms
formula unit
lowest whole number ratio of ion in an ionic compound
Poly atomic ion
A charged group of covalently bonded atoms
Metallic bonding
Bonding between metals with electron pooling. Electrons are delocalized, moving freely throughout the entire piece of metal
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR)
Explains the correct angles for bonding. It is based on the face that negative electrons repel each other and naturally orient as far apart as possible.
a mathematical procedure in which the standard atomic orbitals are combined to form new atomic orbitals called hybrid orbitals that correspond more closely to the actual distribution of electrons in chemically bonded atoms
hybrid orbitals
_______ are eqivalent because they have the same size, shape, and energy
intermolecular forces
electrical forces that exist between molecules that would cause one molecule to influence another;
a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions
dipole-dipole forces
A force of attraction between polar molecules.
hydrogen bonding
- the force of attraction between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and an unshared electron pair on F, O, or N
London Dispersion Forces
Are caused by momentary dipoles that develop when random movement of electrons in a molecule results in an uneven distribution of electrons. They act between all atoms and molecules
atoms form chemical bonds because
independent particles have high potential energy, but nature favors arrangements with minimal potential energy
most atoms are less stable
existing by themselves than when bonded, which decreases potential energy
most chemical bonding is neither purely ionic nor purely covalent because
it depends on how strongly the atoms of each element attract electrons
electronegativity for covalent bonds
atoms with 0-49% ionic character are classified as covalent; equates to electronegativity difference of 1.7 or less
electronegativity for ionic bonds
atoms with 50-100% ionic character are classified as ionic; equates to electronegativity difference of 1.8 or more
non-polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonding atoms, resulting in balanced distribution of electrical charge
electronegativity for non-polar covalent bonds
atoms with 0-5% ionic character or 0-0.3 electronegativity difference
a molecule in which the centroid of the positive charges is different from the centroid of the negative charges.
electronegativity for polar covalent bonds
atoms with 4-49% ionic character or 0.4-1.7 electronegativity difference
partially negative
the atom with higher electronegativity in a polar covalent bond is
partially positive
the atom with lower electronegativity in a polar covalent bond is
(NTB) o.4 electronegativity difference
polar covalent (because it is between 0.3 and 1.7)
(NTB) 1.8 electronegativity difference
ionic (because it is 1.7 or higher)
(NTB) 0.2 electronegativity difference
non-polar covalent (because it is between 0 and 0.3)
the main distinction between ionic and covalent bonding
ionic bonds give or gain electrons but covalent bonds share them
how is electronegativity used in determining the ionic or covalent character of the bonding between two elements?
if the difference of two atoms' electronegativities is higher than 1.7, it is ionic; if it is more than 0.3 but less than 1.7, it is polar covalent; if it is 0.3 or less, it is non-polar covalent
(type of bond) H and F
4.0 (F) -2.1 (H) = 1.9; 1.9 is higher than 1.7 so ionic
(type of bond) Cu and S
2.5 (S) - 1.9 (Cu) = 0.6; 0.6 is less than 1.7 and higher than 0.3 so polar covalent
(type of bond) I and Br
2.8 (Br) - 2.7 (I) = 0.1; 0.1 is less than 0.3 so non-polar covalent
0.1, 0.6. 1.9
(list in order of increasing ionic character) 1.9, 0.6, 0.1