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Ionic and Metallic
Bonding Characteristic: High melting points
Bonding Characteristic: Electrons are shared between 2 or 3 elements or compounds
Covalent and Metallic
Bonding Characteristic: Insoluble in water
Bonding Characteristic: Sharing of electrons on a large scale
How are crystals formed?
When a liquid slowly cools the atoms may line up in specific patterns to form crystals
A face
What is the smooth side of a crystal called?
Heating or firing
What process is necessary for ceramics to become strong?
What is the common ingredient in all natural ceramics?
Name a traditional ceramic.
Name a traditional ceramic.
Name a traditional ceramic.
Name a traditional ceramic.
Are alcohols more soluble in water than aldehydes and ketones?
Are ions electrically neutral?
(ex mg)
Copper and Zinc
Brass is an alloy made up of what two elements?
Iron and Carbon
Steel is an alloy of what two elements?
Hydrates have what texture?
Dry - water has evaporated.
Prevent spread of fire
Name one use for hydrates
Do inert ceramics react with the body?
valence electron
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
electron dot notation (Lewis dot)
diagram that shows the valence electrons of an atom as dots
octet rule
a concept of chemical bonding theory that is based on the assumption that atoms tend to have either empty valance shells or full valence shells of eight electrons
(+) Lose an electron
(-) Gain an electron
ionic compound
a compound composed of positive and negative ions; most commonly between metals and non-metals
Ionic Bond
a bond that results from electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. The cation is positively charged, while the anion is negatively charged.
chemical formula
show the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of the substance
formula unit
lowest whole number ratio of ion in an ionic compound
Metallic bonding
Bonding between metals with electron pooling. Electrons are delocalized, moving freely throughout the entire piece of metal
a material made of elements that has metallic properties. Usually to make a substance superior than its elemental components
Covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
2 or more atoms of same or different kinds that are chemically combined.
Diatomic molecule
A molecule consisting of 2 atoms of the same element; H O F Br I N Cl
Molecular formula
not the lowest whole # but the actual #of atoms of each element present
single covalent bond
2 atoms held together by sharing one pair of electrons
Double covalent bond
a bond that involves two shared pairs of electrons
Triple covalent bond
a bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons
Structural formula
A structural formula shows the connectivity of the atoms in the molecule.
unshared pair of electrons
pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms. Also known as non-bonding pair of electrons
coordinate covalent bond
A covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
Bond Dissociation Energy
Energy required to break a covalent bond
VSEPR theory
a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are equally attracted to both bonded atoms
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which a shared pair of electrons is held more closely by one of the atoms
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
When are chemical bonds formed?
When valence electrons are
Why do atoms bond?
Atoms bond to attain a stable valance electron configuration (8 valence electrons) by bonding with other atoms.
Why don't noble gases tend to bond?
They have a stable valence electron (filled with 8 electrons)
What's the octet rule?
Electrons in an atom are arranged so an atom attains 8 electrons in its outer shell
What are the exceptions to the octet rule?
Both hydrogen and helium have stable valence electrons when there are 2 electrons in its outer shell
What do changes in energy result from?
They result from the forming or breaking of chemical bonds.
What is chemical energy?
Potential or stored energy
A chemical reaction that releases energy
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat
Non Polar Covalent Bonds (NPCB)
EQUAL sharing of electrons between two non metals
Polar Covalent Bonds (PCB)
UNEQUAL sharing of electrons between two non metals
Molecular Compound
A compound composed of molecules
Elements that make NPCB
H O F Br I N Cl - These elements can bond together
Single bond
1 pair of shared electrons
Double Bond (+ example)
Sharing two pairs of electrons by 2 atoms (ONLY OXYGEN CAN DO THIS)
Triple Bond (+ example)
Sharing three pairs of electrons by 2 atoms (ONLY NITROGEN CAN DO THIS)
What are Lewis Structures?
Formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner shell electrons
What is a dipole and why does it form?
Dipoles are PCB's where one end of the bond is partially positive and the other end is partially negative. This is due a difference in electronegativity - the atom with the higher electronegativity h…
It effects the shape a compound will form
What effect does molecular polarity have on molecular compounds?
Shape (symmetrical or asymmetrical)
What is molecular polarity determined by?
asymmetrical Shape
Polar Molecules (+ examples)
H - Cl
Linear Polar Molecule Example
Pyramidal Polar Molecule Example
H - N - H
Bent Polar Molecule Example
symmetrical Shape
Non Polar Molecules
Linear Non Polar Molecule Example
O - C - 0
Central Atom
Any atom bonded to two or more atoms in a molecule
A chemical formula is a qualitative and quantitative description of the composition of a pure substance, either an **element or a compound**
What must all compounds be?
They must be electrically neutral, or the sum of all oxidation states must equal 0
Rules for naming Covalently Bonded Atoms
Write elements in the order they appear
What is a Lewis Dot Symbol
A symbol in which the electrons in the valence shell of an atom or ion are represented by dots placed around the letter symbol of the element
valence electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom;available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
The number of electrons that the elements want in their outer most energy level
a force that holds groups of 2 or more atoms together and allows them to function as a unit
metallic bond
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
A charged atom
Positive ion
An atom that has GAINED electrons
Negative ion
An atom that has GAINED an electron
electron configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom
crystal lattice
a 3-D system of points designating the centers of components that make up the substance
lattice energy
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
VSEPR model
the structure around a given atom is dermined principally by minimizing electron pair repulsions
a mathematical procedure in which the standard atomic orbitals are combined to form new atomic orbitals called hybrid orbitals that correspond more closely to the actual distribution of electrons in chemically bonded atoms
intermolecular forces
electrical forces that exist between molecules that would cause one molecule to influence another;
boiling/ point
is a good indicator of the force of attraction between particles
dipole dipole
forces of attraction between polar molecules
hydrogen bonding
- the force of attraction between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and an unshared electron pair on F, O, or N
London dispertion forces
the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles
chemical bonding
a mutual attraction between the nuclei and valence elections of different atoms that binds the atoms together
Ionic bonding
Bonding between metals and nonmetals
covalent bonds
atoms share pairs of electrons
bond length
the average distance between 2 bonded atoms
bond energy
energy required to break a bond
non-polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonding atoms, resulting in balanced distribution of electrical charge
2 Hydrogen atoms bonded together is a _______
A pure substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions. This can be broken down into simpler substances
A number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in a compound
A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.
if a substance gives up electrons readily it is said to be a //// reducing agent
cation + anion
example of an ionic bond
_______ + nonmetal is an example of an ionic bond
ionic bonds involve a _______ of electrons
ionic bonds
form from the attraction of oppositely charged ions.
Basic if there is a basic anion and a group 1 or 2 metal cation
crystalline solids
highly regular pattern. composed of repeating unit cells that make up a lattice
E1 Temp
melting points
_______ indicate bond strength
ionic compounds
_______ dissolve in water
conduct electricity
Ionic compounds _______ in a molten state
endothermic process
a process that absorbs heat from the surroundings
exothermic process
a process that occurs with a release of heat to the surroundings and therefore a decrease in the enthalpy of the system (delta h < 0).
compounds form to achieve the _______ possible energy
3D system of points designating the centers of components (atoms, ions, molecules) that makes up the substance
internal arrangements of ions (or atoms)
the shape of a crystal depends on the _______
sizes of ions
the many possible crystal arrangements of ions depends on _______
coordination number
number of ions of opposited charge that surround the ion in a crystall
metallic bonds are like an _______
metallic bonds
attractions of free-floating valence electrons for positively charged metal ions, may form between atoms of the same metal or atoms of different metals
(solid solutions)formed when two or more metals or non-metals are combined together
atoms that form metallic bonds have _______ ionization energies so that loosely held electrons are available for bonding
atoms in metals are packed in compact crystal forms that are most commonly _______ in shape
_______ are malleable and ductile
Metals are _______ conductors of electricity
_______ lie on the right of the periodic table and do not conduct electricity.
liquids or gases
Molecular compounds tend to be _______ at room temperature
molecular compounds
_______ contain intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces
intramolecular forces
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together
s to s bonding is _______ because s orbitals can approach each other from any direction and overlap to form a bond
directional bonding
bonding in which an atom's orbitals must approach at a specific direction in order for the orbitals to overlap to form a bond
All bonds in HONClBrIF's are _______
electronegativity difference
indication of the type of bond formed
If the moles of two reactants are equal, then the rates of reactant concentration for each reactant (-?[A1]/?t & -?[A2]/?t), is presumably...?
polar covalent bond has an _______ sharing of electrons
polar molecule
A _______ is one whose centers of positive and negative charge do not coincide. Thus, a polar molecule has a positive side and a negative side.
_______ of the molecules determines the polarity of a molecule
_______ of the bonds determines the polarity of the molecule
valence shell electron pair repulsion
what does VSEPR stand for?
linear bonds are _______ degrees
bent bonds are _______ degrees
trigonal planar bonds are _______ degrees
pyramidal bonds are _______ degrees
tetrahedral bonds are _______ degrees
Pi bonds (can/cannot) rotate
Molecular Orbitals
an orbital resulting from an overlapping of atomic orbitals when two atoms combine
sigma bond
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
end to end
sigma bonds have _______ orbital overlap
very strong
sigma bonds are _______
pi bond
A bond formed when parallel p orbitals overlap creating two regions of electron density, one above and one below the internuclear axis.
side to side
pi bonds have _______ orbital overlap
intermolecular forces are _ than bonds
increase bonding pacity
hybrization occurs when atoms promote electrons into nearby orbitals to _______
the same # of hybrid orbitals
hybridation occurs when several atomic orbitals mix to form _______
hybrid orbitals
_______ are eqivalent because they have the same size, shape, and energy
_______ require hybrid orbitals
sigma bonds and lone pair electrons