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A measure of the size of an element's atoms; usually the mean or typical distance from the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
Energy needed to remove an electron from the valence shell of an atom - how easily an atom can become an ion (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A METAL)
Energy emitted upon addition of an electron - tendency to gain an electron (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A NONMETAL)
Cations are always than their corresponding neutral atom
Anions are always than their corresponding neutral atom
The reduction of the attractive force between a nucleus and its outer electrons due to the blocking effect of inner electrons.
second ionization energy
Energy change for: X+(g) --> X++(g) + e-
Elements for which the 2nd ionization energy is MUCH higher than the first.
Elements in group 8A of the periodic table. Have no charge and are gases under normal conditions. (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon)
Elements that become stable when they acquire 1 e-
columns on the periodic table represent (groups, periods)?
An atom with a very high ionization energy is _______(easy or hard)_______ to take an electron away from.
Bond length and energy. think rubber bands. the shorter the bond is, the _______ energy it contains.
as the size of halogens increase, the melting and boiling points
If everything else is constant, when a satellite's orbit moves farther away from the plant, the speed of the satellite (increases,decreases).