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Electron Orbitals - Periodic Trends


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atomic radius
A measure of the size of an element's atoms; usually the mean or typical distance from the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
Ionization Energy
Energy needed to remove an electron from the valence shell of an atom - how easily an atom can become an ion (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A METAL)
Electron Affinity
Energy emitted upon addition of an electron - tendency to gain an electron (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A NONMETAL)
Smaller
Cations are always than their corresponding neutral atom
Larger
Anions are always than their corresponding neutral atom
shielding effect
The reduction of the attractive force between a nucleus and its outer electrons due to the blocking effect of inner electrons.
second ionization energy
Energy change for: X+(g) --> X++(g) + e-
alkali metals
Elements for which the 2nd ionization energy is MUCH higher than the first.
Noble gases
Elements in group 8A of the periodic table. Have no charge and are gases under normal conditions. (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon)
Halogens
Elements that become stable when they acquire 1 e-
groups
columns on the periodic table represent (groups, periods)?
hard
An atom with a very high ionization energy is _______(easy or hard)_______ to take an electron away from.
more
Bond length and energy. think rubber bands. the shorter the bond is, the _______ energy it contains.
increase
as the size of halogens increase, the melting and boiling points
decrease
If everything else is constant, when a satellite's orbit moves farther away from the plant, the speed of the satellite (increases,decreases).