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Level 29

Electron Configuration & Orbital Diagrams


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Orbitals
3-D pictures of the regions in space where electrons associated with a certain nucleus may be found are called. ONLY 2 e- per orbital box
s orbital
Orbital of group 1 and 2 electrons. Has the shape of a sphere. Coefficent indicates the period/energy level; the superscript indicates the number of electrons in the orbital.
P orbital
2 lobed orbitals along x,y,z axes
d orbital
Five orbitals of Group 3-12. They have a "dumb bell shape". Coefficent indicates the energy level or period minus one; the superscript indicates the number of electrons in the orbitals.
f orbital
Seven orbital of the inner transition. They are filling the remaining space and have a "freaky shape". Coefficent indicates the energy level or period minus two; the superscript indicates the number of electrons in the orbitals.
Period
(p) time required for successive maxima or minima to pass through a point in space
group
A column on the periodic table
electron configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom
electron orbital diagram
The configuration of electrons throughout the atom in diagram form using boxes for the orbitals and arrow up and down for the electrons.
Aufbau principle
a subshell is completely filled before electrons are placed in the next higher subshell; exceptions: Cr, Cu
Pauli's Exclusion Principle
An orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two paired electrons
Hund's Rule
- electrons occupy equal energy orbitals so as to maximize the number of unpaired e-
valence electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom;available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
Electron energy diagram
An energy level represents a specific value of energy of an electron and corresponds to a general location
lone pairs
another name for unshared pairs
unpaired electrons
an electron that occupies an orbital singly, rather than as part of an electron pair, para magnetic, and involved in bonding.
Electron configuration exceptions
Cr, Mo, Cu, Ag.
Orbital stability
orbitals are most stable with all of the electrons are facing the same way and paired. (Full and half full)
Bohr diagrams
this diagram is where the elctrons orbit around the nucleus in the orbits or energy levels.
Lewis diagrams (electron dot diagrams
diagrams that depict the outer electrons surrounding the symbol for an element