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Level 28

Atoms & Electron Configuration


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Dalton's Model (of the atom)
Atoms are tiny indestructible particles with no internal structure.
Thomson's Model (of the atom)
plum pudding model; the atom is a lump of positively charged material with negatively charged electrons scattered in it
Rutherford's Model (of the atom)
planetary model; nuclear atom model; negative electrons orbit dense positive nucleus at relatively great distance (with empty space in between)
Bohr Model (of the atom)
Electrons move in circular orbits in fixed energy levels, around a nucleus-- electrons remain in orbits unless disturbed-- when an electron jumps from one orbit to another, energy is released or absorbed
ground state
the lowest allowable energy state of an atom
excited state
A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
jumps to excited state
what happens to an electron when it absorbs energy?
falls to ground state
what happens to an electron when it releases energy?
electron configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom
Aufbau principle
a subshell is completely filled before electrons are placed in the next higher subshell; exceptions: Cr, Cu
Erwin Schroedinger
he gave rise to the Quantum Mechanical Model with his calculation of the probability of where an electron can be found around the atom
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers n, l, ml and ms
Hund's Rule
- electrons occupy equal energy orbitals so as to maximize the number of unpaired e-
electron cloud
a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found (most probable location)
Principle Energy Level
main energy level or distance of an electron from the nucleus; (n); correspond to the rows 1-7 on the Periodic Table
sublevels
regions within the energy levels; corresponds to the block grouping s,p,d,f on the Periodic Table
Orbitals
3-D pictures of the regions in space where electrons associated with a certain nucleus may be found are called. ONLY 2 e- per orbital box
S orbitals
spherical and surround the nucleus
p orbitals
3 mutually perpendicular dumbbell shaped orbitals; second to fill from 2nd energy level on up; can hold max of 6 electrons
d orbitals
5 orbitals of cloverleaf shape; third to fill for any energy level; beginning in the third shell, contains a total of 10 electrons; higher in energy than s and p orbitals in the same shell.
f orbitals
their shapes are even more complex than s, p, or d orbitals; can hold a total of 14 electrons in 7 sub-shells; in the fourth and fifth energy levels
energy levels
The possible energies that electrons can have in an atom.
sublevels (or orbitals)
what do the letter symbols stand for?
what to the superscripts stand for?
The number of electrons in a sublevel
quanta
Small specific amounts of energy; The amount of energy needed for an electron to jump from one energy level to the next
nitrogen
1s2 2s2 2p3
Aluminum
Al+3
Titanium
name the element [Ar]4s²3d²
Tungsten
name the element [Xe]6s²4f¹45d4
shorthand notation
uses noble gas configuration from the preceding full level (stable core), along with electrons on current level
valence electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom;available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
frequency (definition)
the number of waves produced in a given amount of time
wavelength (definition)
The wavelength is the distance between two peaks or the distance between two troughs
electromagnetic spectrum
complete range of wavelengths that include: cosmic rays (harmful), gamma rays and x-rays (harmful in excess), ultraviolet (least harmful, but could be harmful), light (seen), infrared (body heat), radio (microwaves; satellites, phones, radios)
inversely proportional
mathematical relationship between two variables that change at an inverse ratio
bright-line spectrum
the lines of visible light emitted by elements as electrons fall to lower energy levels,each element's "fingerprint", aka emission spectrum; light of only certain wavelengths is present
photons
a quantum of light; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles
1s²2s²2p63s²
Full Configuration for Mg
1s²2s²2p63s²3p64s²3d¹°4p65s²4d7
Full Configuration for Rh
[Xe]6s²5d¹4f¹
Noble Gas Configuration for Ce
1
# of orbitals in any s sublevel
3
# of orbitals in any p sublevel
5
# of orbitals in any d sublevel
7
# of orbitals in any f sublevel
How do you determine the # of Valence electrons?
by counting the # of s and p electrons since the most recent noble gas
Why do we fill the 4s orbital before the 3d orbital?
Because the 4s is lower in energy than the 3d, so it is filled first.
1s²2s²2p63s²3p²
Electron Configuration for Si
[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Noble Gas notation for Ni
1s²2s²2p63s²3p64s²3d¹°4p65s²
Electron Configuration for Sr
1s²2s²2p63s²3p64s²3d¹°4p6
Electron Configuration for Kr
1s²2s²2p63s²3p6
Electron Configuration for Ar