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Level 27

Quantum Mechanics & Atomic Orbitals


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Wave Functions
Describe an electron in an atom
probability density
a measure of the probability of finding an electron of a particular region of the atom
Orbitals
3-D pictures of the regions in space where electrons associated with a certain nucleus may be found are called. ONLY 2 e- per orbital box
Principal Quantum Number
n - As n increases, the orbital becomes larger and the electron spends more time farther from the nucleus. Electron also has a higher energy and is less tightly bound to the nucleus.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
l - Defines the shape of the orbital. s, p, d, f
Magnetic Quantum Number
m - Describes the orientation f the orbital in space. Values between -l and l
Electron Shell
Collection of orbitals with the same value of n
Radial Probability Function
Probability that an electron will be found at a specific distance from the nucleus
Electron Spin
An intrinsic property that causes each electron to behave as if it were a tiny sphere spinning on its own axis
Spin magnetic quantum number
Indicates that an electron spins about its axis generating a magnetic field whose direction depends on the direction of the spin
electron configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom
Orbital filling
Orbitals are filled in order of increasing energy, with no more than two electrons per orbital.
Unpaired electron
An electron not accompanied by a partner of opposite spin
Paired electron
An electron accompanied by a partner of opposite spin
Core electrons
Inner electrons occupying principle quantum numbers that have full s & p orbitals.Inaccessible to chemical reagents
valence electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom;available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
Degenerate
Orbitals with the same energy
Main Group Elements
s & p blocks together