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Level 26

Energy Levels & Atomic Orbitals


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Electromagnetic Radiation
One method for energy to travel through space, no medium needed.
Magnetic
Field that is side to side
Violet
What color has the smallest wave, highest energy, and highest frequency
Inverse relationship
What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency
3 * 10^8
Speed of light
Speed of light = wavelength * frequency
Equation for relationship of frequency and wavelength
Photoelectric Effect
the ejection of electrons from a substance when light is shined on it
Albert Einstein
Treated light as a particle NOT a wave
photon
A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
Einstein Planck Equation
E - h * f
H
Hydrogen
Wave and a Particle
Light behaves as what?
Violet, Blue, Blue-green, Red
Emission spectrum of hydrogen
Atomic Spectrum
Different for each element and can be used to identify an element
Louis de Broglie
Person who postulated that all matter has wave properties and therefore duality
electron cloud
a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found (most probable location)
De Broglie Equation
Wave length = h/mv
Erwin Schroginger
Developed wave mechanics - treated electrons as standing waves, devised mathematical equation used to calculate the intensity of an electron (Lead to probability cloud)
orbital
A region of space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found.
Principle Energy Levels
Energy levels that orbitals are in and are discrete
Sublevel
Can hold a different # electrons, regardless of energy levels
1 Orbital, 2 e
# of orbitals and electrons in s
3 Orbitals, 6 e
# of orbitals and electrons in p
5 Orbitals, 10e
# of orbitals and electrons in d
7 Orbitals, 14e
# of orbitals and electrons in f
s orbital
Orbital of group 1 and 2 electrons. Has the shape of a sphere. Coefficent indicates the period/energy level; the superscript indicates the number of electrons in the orbital.
P orbital
2 lobed orbitals along x,y,z axes
electron configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom
Orbital Diagram
Visual representation of occupied orbitals
Aufbau principle
a subshell is completely filled before electrons are placed in the next higher subshell; exceptions: Cr, Cu
Pauli Excursion Principle
Each orbital can hold 2 electrons with opposite spins
Hund's Rule
- electrons occupy equal energy orbitals so as to maximize the number of unpaired e-
Core electrons
Inner electrons occupying principle quantum numbers that have full s & p orbitals.Inaccessible to chemical reagents
valence electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom;available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
Shorthand configuration
Nobel gas + valance electrons
Octect Rule
Atoms tend to gain or lose e when bonding to obtain 8 valence electrons
H and He
Exceptions to the Octect Rule
Valance configuration
Shorthand w/o nobel gas
Periodic Trends
Gradual, predictable changes in the properties of elements as you move across the periodic table
Reactivity
Tendency of a chemical substance to undergo a chemical reaction
Metal's reactivity
More reactive top to bottom - Less reactive left to right
Non metal's Reactivity
Less reactive top to bottom - More reactive left to right
atomic radius
A measure of the size of an element's atoms; usually the mean or typical distance from the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
Ionization Energy
Energy needed to remove an electron from the valence shell of an atom - how easily an atom can become an ion (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A METAL)
Electron Affinity
Energy emitted upon addition of an electron - tendency to gain an electron (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A NONMETAL)
Cation
(+) Lose an electron
Anion
(-) Gain an electron
Ionic radius
A measure of the size of an ion and is obtained from the distance between the nuclei of adjacent ions in a crystalline ionic compound