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Level 21

Introduction to the Periodic Table


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Period
(p) time required for successive maxima or minima to pass through a point in space
Group/Family
Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table
1A
Alkali Metal
Metlas
Elements on the left side of the periodic table that are all solids (except Hg), good conductors, malleable and ductile.
Representative Elements
Any element in an "A" group on the periodic Table
Transition Metals
Any element in a "B" group (#3-12) on the periodic table
nonmetals
_______ lie on the right of the periodic table and do not conduct electricity.
Metalloids
...Elements that are on the "steps" of the periodic table with properties between metals & nonmetals
metals
_______ are malleable and ductile
periodic law
physical and chemical properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers (number of protons in the nucleus); -elements with similar properties occur at regular and predictable intervals (medeleev)
Valence Electron (IMPORTANT)
An electron that is found in the outermost shell (energy level) of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties (maximum at any time is 8.)
Group (family)
A vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties. This has 18 groups.
Dmitri Mendeleev in the year 1869.
Who produced the first orderly arrangement of elements in what was to be called the periodic table? In what year did that happened?
How was this first periodic table arranged?
It was arranged in order of increasing atomic mass.
The properties are in the same column.
When a new row was started for more elements, what determined the placement of the elements?
1.Henry Moseley
About 40 years after Mendeleev published his periodic table, _______ found a different basis for the arrangement of the elements on the periodic table. What was used to arrange the elements on the periodic t…
Akali metals
Group 1, Soft, Shiny, Reacts with water, One valence electron - very reactive, not found in nature as elements they are found as compounds: Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium.
Noble gases
Elements in group 8A of the periodic table. Have no charge and are gases under normal conditions. (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon)
Akaline earth metals
elements belonging to group two on the periodic table. They are less reactive and harder than alkali metals., Group 2, 2 valence electrons, often form compounds in limestone, human body (bones), and animals: Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Radium.
Halogens
Elements that become stable when they acquire 1 e-
Semiconductors
materials able to conduct small quantities of current; i.e.: diamond, silicon, germanium
The Halogens.
What is the name of the family that contains iodine?
Strontium
Sr+2
2 elements
How many elements are in the first period?
7
How many elements are in the first group?
Si and Ge
Which elements are more alike chemically- Si and P or Si and Ge?
Alkaline Metals
What is the name of the family with the following Lewis Dot structures X with one dot on top of the X and two dots on the left side :X in group 16?
Vanadium
What is the 5th element of the 4th period?
S (Sodium), N (Nitrogen,) and Kr (Krypton.)
Which elements are in the non metals category?
Na (Sodium)
Which element begins the third period of the periodic chart?
Ar (Argon)
Which element ends the third period of the periodic chart?
monatomic gases
elements having or consisting of single atoms. They are inert and are unreactive
diatomic elements
Elements that in their pure form exist in pairs are H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Lewis Dot Diagrams
Ways of representing an element's electron configuration by drawing dots, Xs, or Os in pairs around the element's chemical symbol. The dots represent the valence electrons and the symbol represent the atom's nucleus and i…
compounds
_______ are formed by the chemical combination of two or more of the same or different kinds of atoms.
Chemical Symbol
A one or two letter representation of an element
Protons
Atom Structure
proton
¹1P
neutron
¹0n
Electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle located in the electron cloud outside the nucleus. It determines how atoms combine with other atoms.
Atomic Number
A unique number for each element on the periodic table that is equal to the number of protons in any atom of that element. 2. The elements Identity
Cloud Model
2 Types of Models Used for Atoms
4
Number of Energy Levels
Energy Level 1
2-maximum # of electrons
Energy Level 2
8-maximum # of electrons
Energy Level 3
18-maximum # of electrons
Energy Level 4
32-maximum # of electrons
quarks; six types; theoretical
What protons and Neutrons are made of?
Tevatron
linear accelerator where quarks are made
Atomic Mass Representation
sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
Isotope
An atom of a particular element that contains a different number of neutrons
Dimitri Mendeleev
noticed a pattern of properties appeared when arranged elements in order; organized based on mass
Henry Mosley
arranged elements based on properties and atomic numbers
How are Elements Grouped?
by periods, families, and groups
Dot Diagram
dots surrounding element to represent electrons in the outer energy level; dots resemble electrons
Number of Periods
7 periods; Left to Right
alkali metals
Elements for which the 2nd ionization energy is MUCH higher than the first.
Alkaline Earth Metals
The family showing a significant increase in ionization energy between the removal of the 2nd and 3rd electrons
transition elements
the metals in groups 3-12
non metals
elements lacking most properties of a metal-they are on right side of periodic table besides hydrogen