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Level 205

Reaction Energetics


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Energy
the capacity of a physical system to do work
Potential Energy
energy stored
Kinetic Energy
energy of motion
law of conservation of energy
energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed
Work
force*distance -P*delta v
frictional heating
kinetic energy transferred to a surface as heat
pathway
determines the way an energy transfer is divided between work and heat
state function
a property of the system determined by its current state, regardless of how it arrived at that state.
Temperature
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction
heat
a flow of energy due to a temperature difference
system
set of objects that interact with eachother
surroundings
all parts of the universe other than the system being considered.
exothermic
A chemical reaction that releases energy
endothermic
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat
thermodynamics
the study of how energy is distributed under the influence of entropy. refers to the study ofthe relative energy level of reactants and products
First law of thermodynamics
energy is not created nor destroyed
Internal Energy
The combined kinetic and potential energies for atoms and molecules
Calorie
a calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius
joule
1 calorie= 4.184 joules
activation energy
Energy Diagram's hill bisector line
Activated complex
a transitional structure that results from and effective collision that persists while old bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming.
normal boiling point
1 atm pressure, liquid water always changes to gaseous water at 100 degrees Celsius
heating/cooling curve
L to R: adding energy (heating), R to L: removing energy (cooling)
normal freezing point
1 atm pressure, water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius
intramolecular forces
bonding forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together
intermolecular forces
electrical forces that exist between molecules that would cause one molecule to influence another;
molar heat of fusion
energy required to melt 1 mole of a substance
molar heat of vaporization
energy required to change 1 mole of liquid to its vapor
fossil fuels
burning plants or decay products
petroleum
composed of hydrocarbons
natural gas
consists of methane, ethane, propane, and butane
Coal
Examples of Fossil Fuels
heat radiation
energy radiated from heated surface of earth
greenhouse effect
atmosphere absorbs infrared radiation, raising temperature
Hess's Law
The heat of a reaction is constant, whether the reaction is carried out in 1 step or in 1 million steps.
second law of thermodynamics
entropy of an isolated system always increases or remains constant
?E
final energy - initial energy
entropy (?S)
the number of ways in which a system can distribute its energy (amount of disorder in a system)
enthalpy (?H)
amount of energy given off or absorbed by a system
enthalpy of formation
energy required to form 1 mole of a compound from its elements
enthalpy of atomization (atomization energy)
energy required to break all of the bonds in a molecule to produce the atoms
enthalpy of combustion (heat of combustion)
heat absorbed when one mole of a substance reacts with oxygen