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Periodic Table


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Increasing Atomic Mass
When Mendeleev created the first periodic table the elements were put in a specific order based on what?
Why was Mendeleev's "Periodic Table" useful to scientists?
They could use it to predict properties of unknown elements.
Increasing Atomic Numbers
The "Periodic Table" we use today has the elements arranged according to their _______
Families or Groups
What are the vertical columns called? (2 names)
periods
The horizontal row of elements are called _______
Lithium (Li)
[He] 2s¹
Between 2 and 13 in the center of the table.
Where are the Transition Metals found on the Periodic Table"?
What does malleable mean?
That something can be hammered into thin sheets if struck, rather than having it shatter.
Drawn into thin wires
What does ductile mean?
luster
Metals tend to be shiny. What is another word for "shiny"?
corrosion
Example of a slow chemical reaction
Metalloids
...Elements that are on the "steps" of the periodic table with properties between metals & nonmetals
Transition Metals
Any element in a "B" group (#3-12) on the periodic table
Noble gases
Elements in group 8A of the periodic table. Have no charge and are gases under normal conditions. (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon)
valence electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom;available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
What METAL family is the most reactive and WHY?
Alkali metals - they really want to give away the one valence electron that they have.
What NON-METAL family is the most reactive and WHY?
Halogens -because they only need only one more electron to reach 8 valence electrons.
Alkali Metals (1) and Halogens (17)
These 2 families of highly reactive elements are found in nature ONLY in compounds, never as just the element. Name the 2 families.
What are metalloids?
Elements that have properties of BOTH metals and non-metals and are found along the zig-zag line on the periodic chart.
Hydrogen
Acids always contain this element
Why are the Noble Gases unreactive?
Their outer energy level of electrons is full. They do not react with any other elements because they dont need any electrons and don't want to give any away either.
non-metals
Most of these compounds are GASES at room temperature: (metals or non-metals?)
metals
_______ are malleable and ductile
(metal gets hot in the sun fast)
being a GOOD conductor of heat is a physical property of metals or non-metals?
column
The elements that are the MOST alike are the ones in the same row or the same column?
Physical Properties
Almost totally insoluble in water due to low polarity and lack of hydrogen bonding.
vertical columns
Families or Groups are the two names for which of the following:
alkali metals (group 1)
Which family of METALS is the most chemically reactive?
columns
The elements that have the MOST in common (that are the most alike) are the elements in the same:
lose electrons
Elements become cations (positive ions) when they _______ (gain or lose) electrons?
anions
Elements which gain electrons become _______. (anions or cations)
they have the same number of electrons in the outer orbital (called VALENCE electrons)
Elements in the same column have similar properties because _______ (not a one word answer, an explanation)
Dmitri Mendelev
Created the Periodic Table
Atomic Number
A unique number for each element on the periodic table that is equal to the number of protons in any atom of that element. 2. The elements Identity
18 Families
18 Vertical Columns
7 Periods
7 Horizontal Rows
Families Have ...
Properties and Valence Electron Numbers in Common
Solid
Fixed shape and size, atoms are close together, ordered structure, not compressible
Liquid
The particles are free to roam but there is still forces holding them together so they cannot fly about. They keep exchanging places with their neighbours. They vibrate at random. The hotter it is…
1
Family one Valence Electrons
2
Family 2 Valence Electrons
1 or 2
Families 3-12 Valence Electrons
3
Family 13 Valence Electrons
4
Family 14 Valence Electrons
5
Family 15 Valence Electrons
6
Family 16 Valence Electrons
7
Family 17 Valence Electrons
Family 18 Valence Electrons
8 except Helium (He) has only 2
alkali metals
Elements for which the 2nd ionization energy is MUCH higher than the first.
Halogens
Elements that become stable when they acquire 1 e-
Rare Earth Elements
Located Below the Table to Make it Easier to Read, Belong in Periods 6 and 7
Family 2
Alkaline Earth Metals
metallic bond
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
Ionic Bond
a bond that results from electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. The cation is positively charged, while the anion is negatively charged.
Covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Properties of Metals
1)The stronger the bond the higher the melting and boiling point
Malleable
Metals can be hammered flat.
ductile
A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire
Conductor
Material through which electric charge flows freely
Insulator
Material through which electric charge does NOT flow freely
groups
columns on the periodic table represent (groups, periods)?
group 1A
ID location of alkali metals
group 2A
ID location of alkaline earth metals
group 6A
ID location of chalcogens
group 7A
ID location of halogens
group 8A
ID location of noble (rare) gases
ID location of metalloids
above or below (not catercorner) step-like line separating metals from non-metals
why is it called the periodic table of elements
arranging elements by atomic weight reveals a periodic pattern of chemical and physical properties
in same group
which elements have most similar chemical and physical properties (in same group, in same period, catercorner, etc)