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Level 178

Structure & Properties of Organic Molecules


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acid chloride
An acid derivative with a chlorine atom in place of the hydroxyl group.
alcohol
A compound that contains a hydroxyl grp bonded to a carbon atom; R--OH
aldehyde
A carbonyl group with one allkyl grp and one H
Alkanes
- Compounds with C-C single bonds and C-H bonds only (no functional groups).
alkenes
a family of organic compounds whose functional group is a carbon-carbon double bond
alkyl group
a alkane group minus one hydrogen atom
Amide
Amides
amine
An alkylated analogue of ammonia; R--NH2, R2NH, or R3N
aromatic hydrocarbon/arenes
Hydrocarbons containing a benzene ring, a six-membered ring with three double bonds
bond dipole moment
A measure of the polarity of an individual bond in a molecule, defined as µ = 4.8 x d x d.
carbonyl grp
The >C=O functional grp, as in a ketone or aldehyde
carboxyl grp
The --COOH functional grp, as in carboxylic acid
carboxylic acid
A compound that contains the carboxyl grp, --COOH
cis-trans isomers
(geometric isomers) Stereoisomers that differ in their cis-trans arrangement on a double bond or ring. The cis isomer has similar groups on the same side, and the tarns isomer has similar sequence.
cyano grp
The -C=N functional group, as in a nitrile.
constitutional isomer
isomers with different bonding sequence
dipole-dipole forces
A force of attraction between polar molecules.
double bond
2 atoms share 4 electrons (2 pairs)
ester
An acid derivative with an alkyl grp replacing the acid proton.
ether
A cmpd with an oxygen bonded between 2 alkyl (or aromatic) grps. R-O-R'.
functional group
affects a biological molecules function in a characteristic way
hybrid atomic orbital
A directional orbital formed from a combination of s and p orbitals on the same atom
sp hybrid orbitals
give two orbitals with a bond angle of 180° (linear geometry)
sp² hybrid orbitals
give three orbitals with bond angles of 120° (trigonal geometry)
sp³ hybrid orbitals
give four orbitals with bond angle of 109.5° (tetrahedral geometry)
hydrocarbons
compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen
alkynes
a family of organic compounds whose functional group is a carbon-carbon triple bond
cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, cycloalkynes
alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes in the form of a ring.
aromatic hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons containing a benzene ring, a six membered ring with three double bonds
hydrogen bond
A particularly strong attraction between a nonbonding pair of electrons and an electrophilic O-H or N-H hydrogen. Hydrogen bonds have bond energies of abt 20 kJ/mol compared with about 400 kJ/mol for typical C-H bonds.
Hydroxyl group
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
ketone
A carbonyl grp with 2 alkyl groups attached
London Dispersion Forces
Are caused by momentary dipoles that develop when random movement of electrons in a molecule results in an uneven distribution of electrons. They act between all atoms and molecules
molecular dipole moment
The vector sum of the bond dipole moments (and any nonbonding pairs of electrons) in a molecule; a measure of the polarity of a molecule
stereoisomer
differ only in how their atoms are oriented in space