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Level 169

Organic Compounds


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STRUCTURE
DETERMINES FUNCTION
properties
chemists used the _______ of elements to sort them into groups
functional group
affects a biological molecules function in a characteristic way
classes of biological molecules
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
dehydration (synthesis)
remove water and link monomers to form polymers
carbohydrates
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)
disaccharides
formed when two monosaccharides are connected by the removal of water and the formation of a glycosidic bond (sugar alcohol/sugar linkage).
lipids
constitute a chemically diverse group of substances that
triglycerides
3 fatty acid chains linked to glycerol by dehydration reaction
fatty acid
a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also know…
double bonds
causes kinks or bends in carbon chain because the maximum number of hydrogen atoms can't bond to the carbons at the double bond
unsaturated fats
have fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens- liquids; olive oil, vegetable oil
saturated fats
fats with the maximum number of hydrogens- solid; lard
phospholipids
contain a phosphate group in place of a fatty acid
head
polar, hydrophilic
steroids
A group of lipids having a wide range of functions.
proteins
a polymer built from various combinations of 20 amino acid monomers
structural proteins
insoluble in water
contractile proteins
found in muscles- shorten/contract
defensive proteins
fight off infections
signal proteins
hormones, tell a cell to do something
receptor proteins
where a signal can bind to surface of cell
transport proteins
help move into/out of cell
peptide bonds
a bond between 2 amino acids
dipeptide
2 amino acids bonded by dehydration synthesis *covalent bonds
polypeptide chain
100s or 1000s of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
denaturation
conditions that disrupt H bonds and the protein structure; highly acidic or basic conditions and temp above 50 C.
alpha helix
formed by coiling in a helical structure
pleated sheet
folding caused a structure
disulfide bridges
covalent bonds that further strengthen the protein's shape
glycerol
A molecule that combines with three fatty acids to form a lipid.
Alkanes
- Compounds with C-C single bonds and C-H bonds only (no functional groups).
alkenes
a family of organic compounds whose functional group is a carbon-carbon double bond
alkyl group
a alkane group minus one hydrogen atom
alkynes
a family of organic compounds whose functional group is a carbon-carbon triple bond
aromatic compounds
a family of cyclic organic compounds whose functional group is a benzene ring
aromaticity
a term used to describe the unexpected stability of aromatic compounds
biomolecules
the molecules of life, including carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
branched-chain alkenes
alkanes that have more than one chain of carbon atoms; the shorter chains are considered branches from the main, longer chain
carbonyl
a C=O functional group found as part of several other functional groups
carboxylic acids
a family of organic compounds whose functional group is a carbonyl bonded to an OH; the functional group is a carboxyl group; abbreviated as COOH
chiral
due to this interconversion, alkyl amines are not
chiral center
a carbon atom with four different atoms or groups of atoms bonded to it
cis-trans stereoisomers
a type of isomerism in which compounds differ only in the position of two substituents on a ring or a double bond; the cis isomer has the two substituents on the same face of…
condensed structural formula
a representation of organic compounds that shows all atom and their arrangement, using as few bonds as necessary to convey the correct arrangement of atoms
conformational isomer
an isomer that differs only by rotation about one or more bonds
Cycloalkanes
Alkanes that have carbon atoms that form a ring (called alicyclic compounds).
Enantiomers
A substrate with a single chirality center at the carbon attached to the leaving group will give rise to a pair of _______
essential fatty acids
simple lipid compounds that must be obtained from our diet
fatty acids
A type of organic acid that combines with glycerol to form lipids. Building blocks of lipids.
haloalkanes
hydrocarbon compounds in which a hydrogen atom has been replaced by a halogen atom
heteroatoms
atoms in an organic compound other than carbon and hydrogen
inorganic compounds
compounds composed of elements other than carbon and hydrogen
isomer
a compound with the same molecular formula as another compound, but a different arrangement of the atoms
lipid
a class of biomolecules whose structures are mainly nonpolar
monounsaturated
a term used to describe organic compounds that have one double bond in their structures
omega number
this number specifies the position of the first double bond in a fatty acid chain when numbering form the methyl end of the fatty acid
organic chemistry
the field of chemistry dedicated to studying the structure, characteristics, and reactivity of carbon-containing compounds
polyunsaturated
a term used to describe organic compounds that have more than one double or triple bond
resonance hybrid
a representation used to indicate electron sharing among several atoms
saturated fatty acids
fatty acids that have no carbon-carbon double bonds; each carbon of the alkyl portion of a fatty acid is bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
skeletal structure
a representation of organic compounds that shows only the bonding of the carbon framework
straight-chain alkanes
alkanes that have all their carbon atoms connected in a single continuous chain
structural isomers
compounds with the same molecular formula (number and type of atom) but a different connectivity of the atoms
substituent
A side chain or appendage on the main chain.
terpene
a naturally occurring alkene that contains 5n carbons
unsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
unsaturated hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon with more than one bond between carbon atoms