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Level 167

Organic Compounds


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Organic Compounds
Carbon-based molecules
hydrocarbons
compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen
Carbon Skeleton
The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule
isomers
compounds that have same formula but different structures
hydrophilic
Attracted to water, soluble in water.
Hydroxyl group
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
Carbonyl Group
A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
Macromolecules
Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
Polymers
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Monomers
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
Dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
Hydrolysis
A chemical reaction that produces simpler products from more complex organic molecules
enzymes
biological catalyst
Monosaccharides
carbohydrate monomer
Disaccharide
2 bonded sugars
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
Starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
Glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
Cellulose
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
chitin
cell wall of fungi made of
Hydrophobic
hates water
Unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
Saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
Trans fat
An unsaturated fat containing one or more trans double bonds.
Anabolic steroids
A synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects.
Protein
50 or more bonded amino acids
Amino Acids
An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer of proteins.
Peptide bond
A covalent bond joining the amino acid and the carboxyl group of another amino acid
Polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
primary structure
protein structure, consists of the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
secondary structure
protein structure consisting of the folding or coiling of amino acid chains into a particular pattern; helix or pleated sheet.
Tertiary Structure
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges. Also the third level
Quaternary Structure
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
DNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
Gene
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
Nucleic acid
(biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
RNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
Nucleotides
Monomers that makeup nucleic acids
Double Helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
Carboxyl Group
A functional group that consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group and also acts as and acid by contributing an H+ to a solution and thus becoming ionized.
Amino group
A functional group that has a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens and the carbon skeleton. It acts as a base by picking up an H+ from a solution.
Phosphate group
A functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms
Methyl Group
A functional group that consists of a carbon bonded to three hydrogens