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Level 166

Organic Molecules


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carbohydrates
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)
Monosaccharide
A simple carbohydrate, consisting of a carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and either an aldehyde or ketone group
Disaccharide
2 bonded sugars
glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
polysaccharide
A chain of monosaccharide sugar molecules.
Starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
lipid
a class of biomolecules whose structures are mainly nonpolar
Fat
A complex organic molecule formed from glycerol and one or more fatty acids
fatty acid
a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also know…
triacylglycerol
a lipid consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or triglyceride
Protein
50 or more bonded amino acids
Amino acid
20 most common have a central carbon (alpha carbon) bonded to an NH2 group and COOH group; In 19 of 20 C is chiral center. R is a functional group that determines the amino acid.
Peptide bond
A covalent bond joining the amino acid and the carboxyl group of another amino acid
primary structure
protein structure, consists of the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
Nucleic acid
(biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inher…
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; function…
Saturated Fat
All carbons are single bonded to each other so that the maximum number of hydrogen possible can be attached-
Unsaturated fat
A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail.
Aldose and Ketose
Give two examples of 3 Carbon Sugars
Amylose
What is the simplest form of starch?
Triglycerides
What are the three main types of Lipids?
steroids
A group of lipids having a wide range of functions.
dissaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
polysaccharide (Cellulose)
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by ß-1, 4-glycosidic linkages. A major component of pant cell walls
polysaccharide (glycogen)
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
Glyceraldehyde
Which monosaccharide is the energy storing molecule produced by photosynthesis. Two of these molecules combine to make glucose
Glucose
Which monosaccharide is a major nutrient, central to cellular metobolism. It is broken down for energy in the process of cellular respiration. The carbon skeleton of this sugar can also be used to build …
Galactose
Which monosaccharide combines with glucose to form lactose, the disaccharide in milk
Fructose
Which monosaccharide is sometimes called fruit sugar-- the one that makes apples and berries sweet. This monosaccharide is also used to make the disaccharide sucrose, or table sugar.
Ribose
Which monosaccharide is an important component of RNA and ATP. A modified form is used in building DNA.
Chitlin
Which polysaccharide monomer is embedded in proteins, forms the exoskeleton of arthropods?