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Level 162

Ions & Ionic Compounds


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valence electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom;available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
Lewis Dot Structure
representation of how valence electrons as dots are arranged
The Octet Rule
in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve electron configurations of noble gases
Noble gases
Elements in group 8A of the periodic table. Have no charge and are gases under normal conditions. (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon)
ions
at the anode, atoms become
loses electrons
positive ion
gains electrons
negative ion
metals
_______ are malleable and ductile
nonmetals
_______ lie on the right of the periodic table and do not conduct electricity.
Cation
(+) Lose an electron
Anion
(-) Gain an electron
ionic compound
a compound composed of positive and negative ions; most commonly between metals and non-metals
electrically neutral
Although ionic compounds are composed of ions, they are _______.
Ionic Bond
a bond that results from electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. The cation is positively charged, while the anion is negatively charged.
properties of ionic compounds
crystalline solids, brittle, hard, high melting and boiling points, conduct electricity when they are dissolved in water, good insulators
monatomic ions
consists of a single ion
Transition Metals
Any element in a "B" group (#3-12) on the periodic table
Polyatomic Ions
A group of atoms covalently bonded together which together have a charge that comes from either gained or lost electrons to gain an octet
chemical formula
show the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of the substance
binary compound
composed of two elements
metallic bonds
attractions of free-floating valence electrons for positively charged metal ions, may form between atoms of the same metal or atoms of different metals
physical properties of metals
good conductors of electricity, ductile, and malleable
alloys
(solid solutions)formed when two or more metals or non-metals are combined together
Covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
energy released as bond forms
becoming stable, don't need the energy
Diatomic molecule
A molecule consisting of 2 atoms of the same element; H O F Br I N Cl
Examples of diatomic molecules
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Molecular Compound
A compound composed of molecules
properties of molecular compounds
lower melting and boiling points and are gases and liquids
bond length
the average distance between 2 bonded atoms
the shorter the length
the stronger the bond
stronger bond
more shared electrons
single covalent bond
2 atoms held together by sharing one pair of electrons
unshared pair
a nonbonding pair of electrons in the valence shell of an atom; also called lone pair
Double covalent bond
a bond that involves two shared pairs of electrons
Triple covalent bond
a bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons
Bond Dissociation Energy
Energy required to break a covalent bond
the stronger the bond
the more dissociation energy you need
binary molecular compound
composed of two nonmetals