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Halogens that become ions
attractions of free-floating valence electrons for positively charged metal ions, may form between atoms of the same metal or atoms of different metals
A property of a substance that enables it to conduct an electric current through the flows of an electron
A property of a substance that enables the substance to transfer heat
(solid solutions)formed when two or more metals or non-metals are combined together
Particle organization of crystalline solids
Particles are organized in a crystalline solid in an orderly, repeating structure
Characteristics of stable compounds
When Na and Cl combine, Na atoms can lose electrons easily and Cl can accept an electron easily. These oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other
The electrostatic forces among then
How do ions keep their orderly arrangement?
Group: number of valence electrons. Period: main energy level
What does the group number and period number tell us about the electron configuration?
Noble gas stability
They have a full valence therefore they are non-reactive in chemical reactions they are stable.
Explain how ionic compounds conduct electricity
Solid ionic compounds will not conduct electricity. If a voltage applied to Molten ionic compound ,cations migrate freely to one electrode and anions migrate to the other. This ion movement allows electric current to …
Use of alloys
Alloys are important because their properties are often superior to their component elements.
Why do ionic compounds have high melting points?
There are very strong attractive forces between ions in a Crystaline structure, so it takes a lot of heat energy to break or overcome those forces to change from a solid to a liquid.
Ions with a positive charge.
Elements which gain electrons become _______. (anions or cations)
Bonding between metals and nonmetals
a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions
an orbital resulting from an overlapping of atomic orbitals when two atoms combine
s bonds; arise from overlap of atomic orbitals so that the bonding electrons lie along the bond axis
2 sigma bonds in eliminations are converted to
The build-up of a large amplitude oscilation where the frequencies of the vibrating objects match
2 atoms share 6 electrons (3 pair)
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
a molecule in which the centroid of the positive charges is different from the centroid of the negative charges.
(valence shell electron pair repulsion);
ionic bond--> ionic compound
What type of bond forms between a metal and a nonmetal?
covalent bond--> molecular compound
What type of bond forms between two nonmetals?
metallic bond--> Metal compound
What type of bond forms between metal atoms?
KCl forms what type of compound?
metal and a nonmetal- ionic compound
electrons are being shared
What is occurring in a covalent bond?
attraction between oppositely charged ions
What is occurring in an ionic bond?
What is the octet rule?
States that atoms gain or lose electrons in order to get a full outer level (valence electrons)--> stability
Predict how a Li atom achieves stability?
Li atoms lose 1 electron to get to full octet (like a nobel gas)
Predict how a O atom achieves stability?
O gains 2 electrons to get a full octet (like a nobel gas)
number of valence electrons
The chemical properties of an element are largely determined by its _______
metals- are losers! (cat-lovers are losers)
In general, do metals gain or lose electrons to become stable?
non-metals are gainers
In general, do non-metals gain or lose electrons to become stable?
they want to fill their outer valence electrons with 8 electrons- stability
What is the motivation for a main block atom to become an ion?
The size of a nitrogen ion compared to a nitrogen atom will be (bigger or smaller)?
nitrogen forms a 3- anion so it will be bigger (negative electrons are winning the tug of war)
The size of a sodium ion compared to a sodium atom will be (bigger or smaller)?
sodium forms a 1+ cation so it will be smaller (positive protons in the nucleus are winning the tug of war)
An element in the 3rd period considered a metalloid
What is ionization energy?
energy needed to remove an electron
What is the trend for ionization energy for a group? Explain trend.
As you go down a group- energy needed to remove an electron decreases.
What is the trend for ionization energy for a a period? Explain trend.
As you go across a period- energy needed to remove an electron increases.
(1) hard, brittle, crystals
Name three properties of ionic compounds,
Explain the ionic property of having a high melting point?
The crystal lattice has many attractive forces between every cation and anion- this requires a lot of energy to break all of the forces.
Covalent compounds do not have free moving electrons- no current
Explain the ionic property of conducting an electric current when melted or in solution.