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Bonding Characteristic: Electrons are shared between 2 or 3 elements or compounds
simplest whole number ratio of each kind of atom in a particular compound
not the lowest whole # but the actual #of atoms of each element present
The series of hydrocarbons that follows the formula C(n)H(an+b)
A compound composed entirely of hydrogen and carbon
- Compounds with C-C single bonds and C-H bonds only (no functional groups).
Adding carbons to chain
A molecule with a different structure but the same chemical formula
Straight chain carbon
a hydrocarbon with no branches
Branched chain carbon
a carbon chain that has branches
When an H on the carbon chain is switched out for a substituent group or functional group
An unbonded atom that can accept an extra electron to make a bonding pair
the homolytic cleavage of a molecular halogen by heat or a photon to generate two halogen radicals; yields a net increase in radicals
when the # of free radicals STAY CONSTANT
when the # of free radicals DECREASE
The process of braking apart one molecule to create two identical atoms or molecules that acts as free radicals
a SEQUENCE of single reaction steps that sum to the overall equation
a solution that is in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance. (maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
a solution that is not in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance and in which more of the substance can dissolve. (less than maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
When two organic compounds are added together to make a singular compound. Involves increasing the size of the carbon chain
Electron loving, electron deficient, positive charge or partial positive charge
affects a biological molecules function in a characteristic way
A structural formula shows the connectivity of the atoms in the molecule.
The prevention or slowing down of a reaction by atoms or functional groups blocking the access of an attacking molecule or ion
Stereo - isomerism
Isomerism arising from differences in the shapes of the molecules. Includes geometric and optical isomerism
A cation in which the carbon carries most of the + charge. Can be formed during SN1 substitution.
a carbon atom with four different atoms or groups of atoms bonded to it
Reaction in which two molecules join together with the loss of a small molecule, typically water.
Excessive loss of water from the body tissues, accompanied by a disturbance of body electrolytes.
Process by which an alcohol and a carboxylic acid are converted into an ester and water, often with acid catalysis.
Bond breaking in which the more electronegative of the two atoms joined by the bond takes both of the electrons.
Bond breaking in which each atom takes one of the electron in the bond, creating free radicals.
A process by which ionic solids dissolve in water: the positive ends of the water molecules are attracted to the negatively charged anions and the negatively charged ends are attracted to the positively charged cations
A unimolecular process by which a halogenoalkane undergoes nucleophilic substitution. A two-step mechanism: a rate-determining step in which the bond between the carbocation and the halogen are broken, followed by a step in which…
A bimolecular process by which a halogenoalkane undergoes nucleophilic substitution. Mechanism involves formation of a transition state which involves both of the reactants.
A reaction where a nucleophile replaces another group or atom (the leaving group) in a molecule.
Forming a polymer by addition of monomers
Forming a polymer by substitution reaction between monomers, each having two functional groups
A reaction in which the reactant is added across a C=C bond, converting it to a C-C bond. Addition reactions with water requires an H2SO4 catalyst. Addition reactions with hydrogen use Ni as catalyst.
A reaction in which one group is substituted for another. Substitution reactions with halogenoalkanes are nucleophilic substitutions.
CH4 + Cl2 ? CH3Cl + HCl
Write an equation for the reaction between methane and chlorine to form chloromethane. Explain this reaction in terms of a free-radical mechanism.
Boiling point increases as the number of carbons increases / OWTTE;
State and explain the trend in the boiling points of the first six alkanes involving straight-chains.
Formation of Fossil Fuels
Oil and natural gas were formed from tiny animals and plants that lived in the sea. These remains form sediments and become buried under layers of sedimentary rock. They decay, without air, under the ac…
Examples of Fossil Fuels
Burning Fossil Fuels
Fossil Fuel + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Heat
Fossil Fuels are non-renewable which means that they cannot be replaced and are finite.
Air Pollution is mainly caused by the burning of fossil fuels, as during their combustion harmful gases such as Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides are released into the atmosphere.
atmosphere absorbs infrared radiation, raising temperature
Fossil Fuels contain the element sulphur or compounds of sulphur. This dissolves in rainwater; it thens reacts with water and oxygen to from a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This has some negative effects on the environment however:
This is a colourless, odourless toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. This gas is formed when fuels burn in a limited supply of oxygen. Carbon Monoxide is highly poisonous becaus…
Crude Oil is a mixture of many organic substances. It contains hundreds of different compounds. Some are small but most are large. Nearly all of these compounds contain hydrocarbons, which contain carbon and hydrogen…
Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
The tower is very hot at the base and cooler at the top.
Burned in the refinery to fuel the distillation process, sold as LPG, purified and sold as bottled camping gas.
Fuel for cars and motorcycles, also used to make chemicals.
Used to make chemicals.
Fuel for greenhouse heaters and jet engines, manufacture of chemicals.
Fuel for lorries, trains.
Fuel & Lubricating Oil
Fuel for the heating systems of large buildings, fuel for ships, lubricating oil.
Roofing, and road surfaces.
Cracking of Hydrocarbons
In oil refineries it is found that there is a greater demand for the lighter fractions, refinery gas and petrol, than for some of the heavier fractions. There is a high demand for petrol, bot…
Heating large alkanes to cleave them into smaller molecules.
compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen
Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds and can form bonds to itself to from chain of carbon atoms of various lengths. This means that families of carbon compounds can be formed.
A family of compounds with the same general formula, same chemical reactions and gradation in physical properties.
1 - Meth
Naming Hydrocarbons with Prefixs
Combustion of Alkanes
In a plentiful supply of air alkanes burn exothermically to give carbon dioxide and water as products.
a family of organic compounds whose functional group is a carbon-carbon double bond
Formation of Alkenes
Decane, C10H22, is exposed to a high temperature briefly, this causes the bonds to break, forming Propene, C3H6, and Octane, C8H18.
Combustion of Alkenes
Alkenes combust to produce carbon dioxide in a plentiful supply of air.
Addition of Bromine
Ethene + Bromine --> 1,2-dibromoethane
Testing for Alkenes
Alkenes can be distinguished from alkanes by using bromine water. Samples of both the organic compounds are placed in a test tube. These are both colourless. Bromine water is added to both tubes and …
Addition of Hydrogen
Ethene + Hydrogen --> Ethane
Polymerisation - Ethene
Ethene forms polythene. In order to produce this polymer, the ethene vapour is passed over a heated catalyst at 75c, causing a series of addition reactions to occur.
Propene --> Poly(Propene)
Vinyl Chloride --> Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
Styrene --> Poly(Styrene)
Advantages of Polymers
Less dense than other materials
Disadvantages of Polymers
First member of the family of alcohols, it is a colourless liquid which boils at 65c.
Hydration fo Ethene
Ethanol is produced industrially by the hydration of ethene gas using steam.
This occurs when yeast attacks sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol. Air has to be excluded and the container is kept warm (37c). This is how wine and beer are made. Pure ethanol…
Advantages of Fermentation
Crude Oil not needed for the process
Disadvantages of Fermentation
More expensive and complex
Advantages of Ethene
Cheaper than Fermentation
Disadvantages of Ethene
Harder for poorer countries
Uses of Ethanol
Combustion of Ethanol - Used as a fuel, in Brazil for example. Ethanol is used as fuel in Brazil, either pure ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and petrol for cars. Ethanol burns in ex…
Harmful Effects of Ethanol
Impaired co-ordination and judgement
_______ ionize only slightly in aqueous solutions.
This is commonly found as vinegar and is also named acetic acid. It is a weak acid which is soluble in water.
A long chain of repeating subunits
Alkene molecules can add on to one another to form very long chain molecules. This is called polymerisation.
Benefits of Plastics
Less dense than other materials
Alcohol Detection Test 1
Place a small sample of each liquid into 4 boiling tubes and add a small amount of bromine water to each. The liquid that causes the or…
Alcohol Detection Test 2
Place a small sample of the remaining liquids into three boiling tubes and add a small amount of sodium carbonate to each. The liquid that produces bubbles of carbon dioxide is the carboxylic acid. …
Alcohol Detection Test 3
Place a small sample of the remaining liquids into 2 boiling tubes and add a small amount of orange potassium dichromate to each following by a small amount of sulphuric acid. Both boiling tubes…