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Level 152

Organics II


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Bald Eagles
Rachel carsons silent spring described the relationship between and the reproduction capacity of_______
cultural, biological and mechanical practices
The usda definition states that organic farming production system promote ecological balance and conserve biodiversity by integrating _______, _______ and _______-_______
false
true or false: in the ideal case of zero resistance, a ball rolling on a level surface will accelerate
sewage sludge
which of the following nutrient sources are not organic
Definition of synthetic
Material made by chemicals, not found naturally
less then 5000- not certified
which type of farm can advertise with usda seal ?
planting wind break
list four examples of cultural practices
NOP - National Organic Program
name the usda division that write interprets and enforces the us organic regulations
Georgia
which of the following states is not represented by the current NOSB board members
increase demand for organic and wholesome food
the 1970s counter culture movement change the demand for organic products in which of the following ways?
minimize of farm outputs
what are the three key principles in biodynamic farming?
lorde walter northbourne
who coined the term organic farming
1920s-1940s
which time period overlapped with a rapid development of synthetic fertilizers pesticides and machining in the US?
To educate farmers on soil preservation
why was the national resource conservation founded
Published a lot of material
Jerome rodale was an important contribute to the us organic movement because? 4 reasons
The green revolution
what was the time period called that described increase efforts and success in plant breeding for high input sytems along with greater irrigation capacity ?
Host specific, short persistence , non mobile
The ability of crop rotations to address management challenges are most successful when problems are 1._______-_______ and when disease, pests, or weeds have 2. _______ and/or are 3. _______-_______.
They have a wide host range and they also are highly mobile.
Give 2 reasons that controlling a pest such as Lygus lineolaris would be difficult with crop rotation?
BIOTIC FACTORS ABIOTIC FACTORS
Name the predominant biotic and abiotic factors to be aware of in order to acheive successful shiitake mushroom production. In addition, explain the strategy used to address each factor.
aphid mummies should be seen
What indirect measure can we monitor in order to assess Aphidius sp. activity?
40 percent
Six months later the log weight is 25 lbs., what is the current log moisture content?
Homestead act encouraged? 3 things
settlement, increased mechanization, dev.' of federal agricultural policies
1860
The homestead act occured in what year
what was the The Dust Bowl" or also known as the "Dirty Thirties"
(drought period + extensive plowing of virgin topsoil in the Great Plains) coincided & intensified effects of the Great Depression
1930's
what year did the dust bowl occur
president roosevelt
Who created the NRCS
nrcs does what. 2 things
educate farmers on anti erosion techniques
Rudolf Steiner, German philosopher,
who developed concept of biodynamic agriculture ? where was he from
1920s
when did the concept of biodynamic farming occur? (Year)
Lady Eve Balfour did what
Established side-by-side organic vs. chemical-based farming study
American Food Reform movement revolved around
vegetarianism , back to the land initiatives and organic gardening
1940s-1960s
the green revolution where in what years
increased crop yields & fossil fuel based inputs
Emphasis on plant breeding for high input systems + greater irrigation capacity =_______ & _______
1960's, U.S. Environmental movement made the public
more aware of harmful effects of pesticides on environment & people's health
Used during WWII to control malaria & typhus
DDT was used for what then turned into what use?
1)Counter-culture movement
1970's big change how 4 things
1970s california , trust
1st organic food label what year and what state and why
1980s what happend
demand for organic foods increase after pesticide scares
22 . confusion and led to the creation of national organic rules
By 1990 - how many states had their own label and what did that cause
long-term farm plans
Certified organic agricultural products are produced, handled, and labeled according to USDA standards, including: 4 things
Origin of term organic farming =
concept of farm as an organism
Organic = 2 things
molecules that contain carbon
Natural
A substance derived from mineral,plant, or animal matter that does not undergo a synthetic process.
Synthetic
A substance formulated or manufactured by a chemical process or by a process that chemically changes a substance extracted from naturally occurring plant, animal, or mineral sources.
Cultural practices definition
Methods used to enhance crop health & prevent weed, pest, or disease problems without the use of substances
Biodiversity =
the # and frequency of the variety of living organisms , the genetic differences among them & the communities & ecosystems they occur
Agro-ecosystem
the application of ecological concepts & principles to the design and management of sustainable agricultural systems; a site or region of agricultural production with complementary relations between living organisms & their environment, which maintai…
1990
Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) established when?
National Organic Program (NOP) does what
Writes, interprets & enforces organic regulations (7 Code of Federal Regulations Part 205). Housed under the USDA - Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)
15, secretary of agriculture
National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) how many members? and who are they appointed by
third party oversight does what
Approved agencies (accredited state or private organizations) monitor organic farms & facilities on an annual basis
organic planting seedling requirements 3
organic seeds & seedlings if available
spacing ,irrigation, fabric barriers
cultural ways of disease control 3
buffer zone required to
protect against chemicals from bordering conventional farms, roadside spraying, or industrial uses
soap. kill good bugs
natural insecticides one example one bad thing
No
Are ions electrically neutral?
the part of the Federal code that deals
How to read the standards Ex.Title7.§205.601 title 7 refer to
he National Organic Program
Ex.Title7.§205.601 Part 205 refers to
Ex.Title7.§205.601 Section 601 refers to
synthetic substances allowed in organic crop production
How to tell what is allowable?
the National List of Allowed & Prohibited Substances
The National List of Allowed & Prohibited Substances
lists exceptions and provides NOP evaluation criteria such as:
Naturals that are prohibited
Ash from manure burning • Arsenic
Naturals "allowed" with restrictions
Sodium nitrate 'Chilean or Peruvian saltpeter' (NaNO3),Potassium chloride (KCl) Calcium chloride (CaCl2)
Sodium nitrate 'Chilean or Peruvian saltpeter' (NaNO3) restriction
not more than 20% of crop's total nitrogen(N) requirement - avoidance of input substitution
Potassium chloride (KCl) restriction
must minimize the amount of chloride accumulation in the soil
Calcium chloride (CaCl2) restricion
only in foliar sprays when treating a Ca disorder
Common pest in temperate zones
Aphids are found in what zones
aphids travel via
wind and on plant material
aphids feed on
phloem-sap (water sugar amino acids)
most generations wingless
aphids are wingless or non wingless
both they alternate . holocylic
aphids asexual or sexual? what type of species ?
10 families
how many aphid famalies?
4,400 species
how many aphid species?
Soft, pear-shaped bodies
shape and color of aphids
potential effects of aphids (3)
damage plant tissue & vascular system
controls for aphids cultural and biological
Cultural - clean environment, don't introduce them!, reflective mulches
Adalia bipunctata
is a ladybird beetle aphid predator
100
adalia can eat how many aphids a day
20-50 yellowish orange
an adult lays how many eggs and what color are they
4-8 days
how long does it take for larvae to hatch?
Aphidius ervi & Aphidius colemani, are
parasitic wasps. Slender, black winged insects , ~2 mm.
Females parasitize aphids by
depositing eggs in adults and nymphs with the ovipositor.
inside out start with vital parts
Aphidius larva eats aphids from and starts with what part
mummy". 4 days later adult Aphidius leaves the mummy through a round hole.
In the 1st week after parasitation, aphid forms. and 4 days later what happens?
mummies with buckwheat carrier.
phidius ervi & Aphidius colemani, are delivered as
What is crop rotaton
Changing the type of crop grown periodically so that crops are not repeatedly grown in the same location.
1)Break pest & disease cycles
why do we do crop rotation 3 things
Long-term strategic planning with built-in
crop rotation requires ? ( GENERAL THINGS)
Considerations for crop rotation plans
Work with your soil type, texture & climate
General Crop Rotation Recommendations (7 )
Avoid successive annual crops in the same plant family
host-specific & short persistence
Pseudomona syringae pv. tomato : info
Lygus lineolaris
1)Wide host range
Poaceae
Grasses) - Wheat, Oats, Rye, Corn
Asteraceae
(Sunflower)Lettuce, Sunflower, Daisy
Fabaceae
(Legumes) - Peas, Soybean
Liliaceae
(Alliums) - Onions, Garlic
Brassicaceae
(Brassicas/Crucifers) - Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage,Collards, Radish, Arugula, Turnips, Mustard Greens
Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
(Carrot) -Parsley, Dill, Fennel, Parsnip
Solanaceae
(Nightshades) - Tomato, Pepper, Eggplant, Potato,
Cucurbitaceae
(Cucurbits) - Cucumber, Watermelon, Melon, Winter and Summer Squash, Pumpkin, Gourds, Luffa
Amaranthaceae (
(Amaranth) - Beets, Spinach, Quinoa
Rosaceae
(Rose) - Strawberry, Apple, Pear, Almonds
Malvaceae
(Mallow) - Okra, Hibiscus, Cotton, Cacao
Lamiaceae
(Mint) - Mint, Basil, Sage, Oregano, Thyme, Lavender
1)problem are host- specific
Crop rotations manage problems best when
Allelopathy
when a plant releases a compound into the rhizosphere that inhibits the growth of other organisms
weed managment was via
Via shading, competition for nutrients & water & allelopathy
Brassica spp.
_______& their relatives have been reported as weed and nematode suppressive for many years