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Examples of carbohydrates
sugars, starches, and polysaccharides
A chain of monosaccharide sugar molecules.
A carbonyl grp with 2 alkyl groups attached
A carbonyl group with one allkyl grp and one H
Examples of a lipid
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and steroids
a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also know…
A type of lipid composed of three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol unit.
waxy plaques in vessel walls, leads to hypertension
A lipid composed of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a polar head group; found in all membranes
A group of lipids having a wide range of functions.
A type of lipid found in cell membranes.
(biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
Subunits of nucleic acids
phosphate group, pentose sugar, nitrogen containing base
Spontaneous unexplained change in DNA sequence
DNA complimentary base pairs
Adenine and Thymine-double hydrogen, Guanine and cytosine-triple hydrogen bond a=t, g=c, c=g, big to little, is made up of 3 nucleotides. sugar is deoxyribose loses an oxygen.
RNA complimentary base pairs
Guanine and Cytosine-triple hydrogen bond, Adenine and Uracil-double hydrogen bond, g=c and a=u, travels were DNA does not, has ribose sugar, single stranded, makes different kinds of RNA 1. m-RNA, 2. t-Rna, 3. r-rna.
big bases, adenine and guanine
Cytosine and Thymine and Uracil, small bases
double stranded coiled molecule
discovered the double stranded coiled molecule DNA-helix
Four organic groups of compounds
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
glucose and dextrose are the most common sugar in the body
Glycogen is the most common starch in the body it is made of nothing but glucose
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
carbohydrates, ready energy, quick energy, suffix ending in "ose"
glucose-carbon, hydrogen, oxygen makeup, 1:2:1 ratio of elements, C6H12O6
A simple carbohydrate, consisting of a carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and either an aldehyde or ketone group
3 carbon sugar
4 carbon sugar
5 carbon sugar
6 carbon sugar, examples are Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Grain sugar like beer a 2 bonded glucoses
2 bonded sugars
A chemical reaction that builds complex organic molecules
glucose + fructose=table sugar
glucose + galactose= Milk
3 sugars bonded
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
oily, fatty, greasy, waxy, insoluble in water
Grease spot test-place item on a piece of absorbent paper and if a translucent spot remains when item is removed it contains a lipid
Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen always, Nitrogen and Phosphate sometimes
A chemical reaction that produces simpler products from more complex organic molecules
All carbons are single bonded to each other so that the maximum number of hydrogen possible can be attached-
A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail.
brought on by atherosclerosis, hypertension= high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes mellitus
Attracted to water, soluble in water.
Lipid pigment in plants
yellow-orange plant pigment (also found stored in the skin of Asians
cell hormone of fatty acid-
Female secondary sex hormones- (causes- breast, wide hips, fat under the skin, menstruation
XY- Male secondary sex hormones- (causes- lager skeleton muscles mass, more body hair, deeper voice, sex glands, sperm production
Cell membranes structuer
phospholipids are polarized to attract water and cholesterol
Lubricate the skin (sebum
cerumin in ear
low density cholesterol, "lethal" goes to blood vessels, preferred to be lower that 100, can cause plaques and elevated blood pressure
high density cholesterol, "healthy", stored by the liver
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
Watson and Crick
won noble prize for DNA structure and repilication
Central Dogma Theory
DNA codes for RNA and RNA codes for proteins.
protein factories used for RNA for protein synthesis
a bond between 2 amino acids
2 amino acids bonded by dehydration synthesis *covalent bonds
3 bonded amino acids
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
50 or more bonded amino acids
3 nucleotide base sequence of m-RNA
3 nucleotide base sequence of t-RNA
Actin and myosin
muscle protein fibers
dead protein fibers
hair and nails protein fibers
chain of amino acids
alpha a helix, 1. coiled amino acid chain 2. maintained by H-bonds 3. beta b pleated sheets, 4. h-bonds between parallel amino acid strands.
folded, coiled chain of amino acids.
multi-coiled folded chains of amion acids
a substance that increase reaction rate w/o being permanently used up or changed. it lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction so more molecules have the necessary energy for a reaction
removes amino groups
removes carboxyl groups
works on digests proteins
works on digests surcrose
apoenzyme + prosthetic group