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Level 151

Organic


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Examples of carbohydrates
sugars, starches, and polysaccharides
polysaccharide
A chain of monosaccharide sugar molecules.
ketone
A carbonyl grp with 2 alkyl groups attached
aldehyde
A carbonyl group with one allkyl grp and one H
Examples of a lipid
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and steroids
fatty acid
a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also know…
triglyceride
A type of lipid composed of three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol unit.
Atherosclerosis
waxy plaques in vessel walls, leads to hypertension
A,E,K,D
Four vitalipids
Phospholipid
A lipid composed of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a polar head group; found in all membranes
steroids
A group of lipids having a wide range of functions.
cholesterol
A type of lipid found in cell membranes.
Nucleic acid
(biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
Subunits of nucleic acids
phosphate group, pentose sugar, nitrogen containing base
Mutation
Spontaneous unexplained change in DNA sequence
DNA complimentary base pairs
Adenine and Thymine-double hydrogen, Guanine and cytosine-triple hydrogen bond a=t, g=c, c=g, big to little, is made up of 3 nucleotides. sugar is deoxyribose loses an oxygen.
RNA complimentary base pairs
Guanine and Cytosine-triple hydrogen bond, Adenine and Uracil-double hydrogen bond, g=c and a=u, travels were DNA does not, has ribose sugar, single stranded, makes different kinds of RNA 1. m-RNA, 2. t-Rna, 3. r-rna.
Purines
big bases, adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines
Cytosine and Thymine and Uracil, small bases
Ribosone
protein factories
Helix
double stranded coiled molecule
Wilkins
discovered the double stranded coiled molecule DNA-helix
Four organic groups of compounds
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Carbohydrates sugars
glucose and dextrose are the most common sugar in the body
Carbohydrates Starches
Glycogen is the most common starch in the body it is made of nothing but glucose
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
sugars
carbohydrates, ready energy, quick energy, suffix ending in "ose"
Carbohydrates composition
glucose-carbon, hydrogen, oxygen makeup, 1:2:1 ratio of elements, C6H12O6
Monosaccharide
A simple carbohydrate, consisting of a carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and either an aldehyde or ketone group
Triose
3 carbon sugar
Tetrose
4 carbon sugar
Pentose
5 carbon sugar
Hexrose
6 carbon sugar, examples are Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Maltose
Grain sugar like beer a 2 bonded glucoses
Disaccharide
2 bonded sugars
Dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction that builds complex organic molecules
Sucrose
glucose + fructose=table sugar
Lactose
glucose + galactose= Milk
Trisaccharide
3 sugars bonded
Starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
Cellulose
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
Lipid properties
oily, fatty, greasy, waxy, insoluble in water
Lipid test
Grease spot test-place item on a piece of absorbent paper and if a translucent spot remains when item is removed it contains a lipid
Lipid composition
Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen always, Nitrogen and Phosphate sometimes
Hydrolysis
A chemical reaction that produces simpler products from more complex organic molecules
Saturated Fat
All carbons are single bonded to each other so that the maximum number of hydrogen possible can be attached-
Unsaturated fat
A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail.
Coronary Disease
brought on by atherosclerosis, hypertension= high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes mellitus
hydrophilic
Attracted to water, soluble in water.
Hydrophobic
hates water
Chlorophyll
Lipid pigment in plants
Carotene
yellow-orange plant pigment (also found stored in the skin of Asians
Prostaglandin
cell hormone of fatty acid-
Estrogen
Female secondary sex hormones- (causes- breast, wide hips, fat under the skin, menstruation
Testosterone
XY- Male secondary sex hormones- (causes- lager skeleton muscles mass, more body hair, deeper voice, sex glands, sperm production
Cell membranes structuer
phospholipids are polarized to attract water and cholesterol
Oils
Lubricate the skin (sebum
Wax
cerumin in ear
LDL
low density cholesterol, "lethal" goes to blood vessels, preferred to be lower that 100, can cause plaques and elevated blood pressure
HDL
high density cholesterol, "healthy", stored by the liver
Gene
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
Watson and Crick
won noble prize for DNA structure and repilication
Central Dogma Theory
DNA codes for RNA and RNA codes for proteins.
Ribosomes
protein factories used for RNA for protein synthesis
peptide bonds
a bond between 2 amino acids
dipeptide
2 amino acids bonded by dehydration synthesis *covalent bonds
Tripeptides
3 bonded amino acids
Polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Protein
50 or more bonded amino acids
Codon
3 nucleotide base sequence of m-RNA
Anticodon
3 nucleotide base sequence of t-RNA
Actin and myosin
muscle protein fibers
Collagen
dead protein fibers
Keratin
hair and nails protein fibers
Primary level
chain of amino acids
Secondary level
alpha a helix, 1. coiled amino acid chain 2. maintained by H-bonds 3. beta b pleated sheets, 4. h-bonds between parallel amino acid strands.
tertiary level
folded, coiled chain of amino acids.
quaternary level
multi-coiled folded chains of amion acids
enzymes
biological catalyst
catalyst
a substance that increase reaction rate w/o being permanently used up or changed. it lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction so more molecules have the necessary energy for a reaction
dehydrogenase
removes hydrogen
deaminase
removes amino groups
decarboxylase
removes carboxyl groups
protease
works on digests proteins
surcrase
works on digests surcrose
holoenzyme
apoenzyme + prosthetic group