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Level 148

Mechanical & Chemical Weathering


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weathering
the process that breaks down rock and other substances of Earth's surface
erosion
the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity
uniformitarianism
states that the same process that process that operates today operated in the past
mechanical weathering
the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
causes of mechanical weathering
freezing and thawing, release of pressure, plant growth, actions of animals, and abrasion
abrasion
the grinding away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity
ice wedging
in cool climates water freezes and acts as a wedge, cracks slowly expand until pieces of rock break off
chemical weathering
the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
causes of chemical weathering
action of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, living organizims, and acid rain
oxidiation
iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water , the product is rust
permable
full of air spaces that allow water to seep through
Carbon Dioxide
ACID + METAL CARBONATE --> SALT + WATER + ?
freezing and thawing
breaks rock by ice wedging
Acid Rain
Fossil Fuels contain the element sulphur or compounds of sulphur. This dissolves in rainwater; it thens reacts with water and oxygen to from a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This has some negative effects on the environment however:
living organizms
burrowing in the ground breaks rock . Produces weak acid that weathers rock
plant growth
roots pry apart cracks in rock
Oxygen
1s2 2s2 2p2
gradually dissolving it
water weathers rock by
the type of rock and climate
the most important factors that determine the rate of weathering are
permeable
chemical weathering occurs more quickly in a hot climate because
Water
the universal solvent