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Level 140

Rate Law


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5 Factors
temp concentration surface area nature and catalyst vs inhibitor
why temp affects rate
up temp up Velocity up collisions up rate
Rate=
k[A]x[B]y
activation energy
Energy Diagram's hill bisector line
Enzyme
A protein catalyst that controls the rate of chemical reactions in cells
collisions
one thing that must occur during a chem rxn
catalyst
a substance that increase reaction rate w/o being permanently used up or changed. it lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction so more molecules have the necessary energy for a reaction
molecular
which is slower ionic or molecular
faster
A catalyst causes the product to form...?
slower
the higher the AC the _______ the rxn
ionic
<| 2.0+
Ac
Actinium
exo
mostly spontaneous
endo
mostly non spontaneous
Delta H
change of heat (enthalpy)
Ke=1/2mv2
avg temp formula
concentration
a mixture that has a large amount of solute in the solvent; a strong solution
stir or grind
actions for surface area
SA relations up
up SA up rate up collisions
SA relations down
less SA down rate down collisions
functional group
affects a biological molecules function in a characteristic way
do not change
catalysts and inhibitors _______ reactants or products
orientation
Meaning of ml
DNA to
AA to proteins (folds)
higher hill
slower rxn
lower hill
faster rxn
bond energy
energy required to break a bond
p
momentum
R1......R2
AC (nanosecond)
heat
a flow of energy due to a temperature difference
why slower with less concentration
less collisions bc less crowded
rxn mechanism
a _______ describes the steps in a rxn
Inhibitor
Like a catalyst but slows down a reaction
diff between initial rate and instantaneous rate
rate at start vs. line tangent to curve
four reasons reaction may not occur
inhibitor endothermic nonspontaneous low temp endergonic
what is a spontaneous rxn
rxn that happens with no outside influence
experimentally
The reaction order and rate law must be determined _______.
The rate law relates _______.
the rate of the reaction to the concentration of the reactant(s)
the concentration of the reactant(s) to time
The integrated rate law (which is mathematically derived from the rate law) relates _______.
concentration of a reactant
The half-life is the time it takes for the _______ to fall to one-half of its initial value.
independent
mass is _______ of location
dependent
The half-lives of zero-order and second-order reactions are (independent/dependent) of the initial concentration.