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Level 138

Reaction Energy & Reaction Kinetics


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Thermochemistry
is the study of the changes in heat energy that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes.
Calorimeter
used to determine the heat associated with a chemical reaction
Temperature
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction
joule
1 calorie= 4.184 joules
Heat(heat energy)
can be thought of as the sum total of the kinetic energies of the particles in a sample of matter.
Specific Heat
q/(m X ^T)
Heat of reaction
is the quantity of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction.
thermochemical equation
a chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change
Enthalpy
Amount of energy within a system
Enthalpy Change
Another term for the heat of reaction
Molar heat of formation
is the heat released or absorbed when one mole of a compound is formed by combination of its elements.
heat of combustion
The heat given off when a mole of a compound is burned with excess oxygen to give CO2 and H2O in a bomb calorimeter. A measure of the energy content of a molecule.
entropy
a change in randomness or complexity
Free Energy
The energy that is available to do work
Free- energy change
the difference between the change in enthalpy, and the product of the Kelvin temperature and the entropy change.
Reaction Mechanism
a SEQUENCE of single reaction steps that sum to the overall equation
Intermediates
all local minimumms
Homogeneous reaction
a reaction whose reactants and products exist in a single phase.
collision theory
for a set of reactions to occur, molecules must collide
activation energy
Energy Diagram's hill bisector line
Activated complex
a transitional structure that results from and effective collision that persists while old bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming.
chemical kinetics
study of how fast chemical reactions occur
Heterogeneous Reactions
Involve reactants in two different phases
catalyst
a substance that increase reaction rate w/o being permanently used up or changed. it lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction so more molecules have the necessary energy for a reaction
Catalysis
the action of a catalyst.
Heterogeneous
A mixture in which one or more substances are unevenly mixed.
rate law
an equation that relates reaction rate and concentration at a certain temperature
Rate-Determining Step
limits how fast the overall reaction proceeds(the slowest step)
Rate-Influencing Factors
Nature of reactants, surface area, temperature, concentration, presence of catalysts
Heterogeneous Reaction
involves reactants in 2 different phases and occurs ONLY when the 2 phases are in contact
heterogeneous catalyst
a catalyst that is in a different phase
Order
the power to which a reactant concentration is raised
rate determining step
In a multi-step reaction, the slowest step is _
heat
a flow of energy due to a temperature difference
Enthalpy of Reaction
the quantity of energy transferred as heat during a chemical reaction
Enthalpy of Combustion
the enthalpy change that occurs during the complete combustion of 1 mole of a substance