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is the study of the changes in heat energy that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes.
used to determine the heat associated with a chemical reaction
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction
1 calorie= 4.184 joules
can be thought of as the sum total of the kinetic energies of the particles in a sample of matter.
q/(m X ^T)
Heat of reaction
is the quantity of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction.
a chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change
Amount of energy within a system
Another term for the heat of reaction
Molar heat of formation
is the heat released or absorbed when one mole of a compound is formed by combination of its elements.
heat of combustion
The heat given off when a mole of a compound is burned with excess oxygen to give CO2 and H2O in a bomb calorimeter. A measure of the energy content of a molecule.
a change in randomness or complexity
The energy that is available to do work
Free- energy change
the difference between the change in enthalpy, and the product of the Kelvin temperature and the entropy change.
a SEQUENCE of single reaction steps that sum to the overall equation
all local minimumms
a reaction whose reactants and products exist in a single phase.
for a set of reactions to occur, molecules must collide
Energy Diagram's hill bisector line
a transitional structure that results from and effective collision that persists while old bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming.
study of how fast chemical reactions occur
Involve reactants in two different phases
a substance that increase reaction rate w/o being permanently used up or changed. it lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction so more molecules have the necessary energy for a reaction
the action of a catalyst.
A mixture in which one or more substances are unevenly mixed.
an equation that relates reaction rate and concentration at a certain temperature
limits how fast the overall reaction proceeds(the slowest step)
Nature of reactants, surface area, temperature, concentration, presence of catalysts
involves reactants in 2 different phases and occurs ONLY when the 2 phases are in contact
a catalyst that is in a different phase
the power to which a reactant concentration is raised
rate determining step
In a multi-step reaction, the slowest step is _
a flow of energy due to a temperature difference
Enthalpy of Reaction
the quantity of energy transferred as heat during a chemical reaction
Enthalpy of Combustion
the enthalpy change that occurs during the complete combustion of 1 mole of a substance