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Level 133

Electrolytic Cells


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Difference between galvanic and electrolytic cells
Galvanic cells have a positive EMF and are spontaneous, whereas electrolytic cells have a negative EMF, and require electrical energy to run.
1 F
96,485 (96,500) Coulombs of charge per mole of e?
1 ampere
1 ampere = 1 Coulomb (C) per second
What is electrolysis?
The process in which electrical energy is used to bring about chemical change.
Hydrogen and Oxygen
What does the electrolysis of water (H2O) produce?
What are some examples of electrolysis' products?
silver-plated dishes and utensils, gold-plated jewelry, chrome-plated automobile parts
an electrolytic cell
What is the apparatus in which electrolysis is carried out in?
What is an electrolytic cell?
an electrochemical cell that uses electrical energy to bring about chemical change
electrical energy (direct current)
What does an electrolytic cell use to complete a nonspontaneous redox reduction?
from anode to cathode (in the external circuit)
How do electrons flow in the voltaic and electrolytic cells?
Anode
A positive electrode
the cathode.
For both the voltaic and the electrolytic cell, where does reduction occur?
Contrast the flow of electrons in the electrolytic versus the voltaic cell.
In the voltaic cell, the flow of electrons is the result of a spontaneous redox reaction.
spontaneous
If delta S > o, then the reaction is spontaneous or non spontaneous?
negative.
In the electrolytic cell, what is the charge of the cathode?
yes.
Do electrolytic and voltaic cells differ in the charges of their electrodes?
positive.
In the electrolytic cell, what is the charge of the anode?
Because it is connected to the positive electrode of the battery.
Why in an electrolytic cell, is the charge of the anode positive?
In a voltaic cell, which electrode is positive, and which is negative.
In a voltaic cell, the cathode is the positive electrode and the anode is the negative electrode.
hydrogen and oxygen gas.
In the electrolysis of water, what are the products?
Chlorine
-1 (except in compounds with F and O, where it has positive values)
Hydrogen gas
ACID + METAL --> SALT + ?
Water
Hydrogen peroxide is reduced to
metal
_______ + nonmetal is an example of an ionic bond
plating; purifying; refining
electrolytic cells are commonly used in the ?, ? and ? of metals.
electroplating
deposition of a thin layer of a metal on an object in an electrolytic cell; did to protect the surface of the base metal from corrosion or to make it more attractive
Cathode
A negative electrode
During electroplating, what is the electrolyte?
silver salt solution, such as silver cynide
it can't be easily reduced or oxidized.
what must be true for an electrolyte to electrolyze water?
What do Galvanic cells *do*?
Produces an emf from a chemical reaction
What do Electrolytic cells *do*?
Uses emf of a cell to produce a chemical reaction
voltaic cell
electrochemical cell in which a spontaneous chemical reaction causes a flow of electrons
+
a net voltage (E°) = ...... in a spontaneous redox reaction
Anode to Cathode
Electrons flow from the (Anode/Cathode) to the (Anode/Cathode) in a Galvanic cell?
true
(ex mg)
Galvanic cells consist of what?
Two containers, each with electrodes.
Electrolytic cells consist of what?
One container with 2 electrodes in it.
Anions -
The Anode attracts what type of ions? And what is their charge?
Cations +
The Cathode attracts what type of ions? And what is their charge?
(metal)SO4, metal must match the metal used in electrode.
Name suitable electrolytes for a Galvanic half-cell. What must be ensured about the electrolyte regarding its metal constituent?
Group 1 Nitrate/Sulfate. KNO3, NaNO3, Na2SO4
Suggest the general rule when selecting a suitable Salt bridge for a Galvanic cell, naming examples.
Electroplating, Purification of Copper, Electrolysis of Brine, Electrolysis of Aluminium.
Name some useful things that can be done with Electrolytic cells.
Define the term electrolyte.
A solution which conducts electricity through the movement of ions
Define Electrolysis.
The chemical process in which electrical energy is converted to chemical energy.
oxidation
addition of oxygen or loss of electrons
Anode Solution
Gains anions from salt bridge
Reduction Agent
Is oxidized
Reduction
Cathode is the (oxidation or reduction) part of the reaction?
Cathode Solution
Gains cations from salt bridge
Reduced
Oxidation Agent
Oxidation Agent
Gains electrons
Electrolytic cell
An electrochemical cell that USES electrical current to drive a non-spontaneous reaction
Bridge mol e- to mol substance
n moles of e- = moles of substance
Bridge mol e- to Coulombs
F = Faraday = 96,485 C/mol
Group 1 & 2 metals
Water will ALWAYS be reduced before...
Polyatomic Ions
A group of atoms covalently bonded together which together have a charge that comes from either gained or lost electrons to gain an octet
H2 + 2OH-
Reduction: 2H2O + 2e- -->
Oxidation: 2H2O -->
O2 + 4H+
96,485 C/mol
F (Faraday) =
It (Current*time)
q (Charge) =
It (A*s)
q (C) =
J/C (Joule/Coulomb)
V (Volt) =
C/s (Coulomb/second)
A (Amp) =
Positive
Anode (Electrolytic Cell)
negative
at the beginning of a redox reaction, the charge of the anode is