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Level 132

Energy Changes & Redox Reactions


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Synthesis reaction
Reaction when simple compounds are combined to form a single, more complex compound
Decomposition reaction
The opposite of synthesis. Reaction where a single compound is split into two or more simple compounds, usually in the presence of heat.
Acid-base reaction
Reaction when an acid combines with a base to form water and a salt.
Oxidation-reduction reaction
A reaction that results in the change of the oxidation states of some participating molecules.
Enthalpy
Amount of energy within a system
Released
When bonds are formed, energy is _______.
Absorbed
When bonds are broken, energy is _______.
Hproducts-Hreactants=
Change in H
exothermic
A chemical reaction that releases energy
endothermic
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat
Exothermic, endothermic
_______ processes are more likely to occur spontaneously than _______ processes.
activation energy
Energy Diagram's hill bisector line
negative
at the beginning of a redox reaction, the charge of the anode is
Positive
Anode (Electrolytic Cell)
catalyst
a substance that increase reaction rate w/o being permanently used up or changed. it lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction so more molecules have the necessary energy for a reaction
oxidation number
charge that atom in a molecule is going to have if electrons are completely transferred
Zero
A plot of reactant concentration versus time gives a straight line. What is the order of the rxn for this reactant?
The charge on the ion
The oxidation numbers for polyatomic ions must add up to _______
Several
Transition metals can have _______ oxidation numbers.
Decreases
When light rays enter a material in which their speed _______, the rays bend toward the normal.
increases
When light rays enter a material in which their speed _______, the rays bend away from normal.
Reducing agent (reductant)
Reactant that contains an atom that is being oxided, it is a _______
Oxidizing agent (oxidant)
Reactant that contains an atom that is being reduced, it is an _______
Reduction potential
A measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and be reduced. Measured in volts.
Galvanic cell
Aka voltaic cell, a spontaneous redox reaction is used to generate a flow of current.
Current
A
Anode
A positive electrode
Cathode
A negative electrode
Electrolytic cell
An electrochemical cell that USES electrical current to drive a non-spontaneous reaction
electroplating
deposition of a thin layer of a metal on an object in an electrolytic cell; did to protect the surface of the base metal from corrosion or to make it more attractive
Electrochemistry
Any chemistry that produces electricity