Level 122 Level 124
Level 123

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Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
pH = pKa + log[A-]/[HA]
Ksp
solubility product constant; equilibrium constant for a slightly soluble ionic compound
precipitation reaction
a reaction in which dissolved ions form a substance with low solubility
fractional precipitation
separation of two or more ions from solution by adding a reactant that precipitates first one, then the other.
complex ion formation
removes a metal cation from solution to below concentrations required for precipitation
Kf = 1/Kd
equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex ion (from aqueous metal ion and ligand)
Kd = 1/Kf
equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a complex ion (from aqueous metal ion and ligand)
common ion effects on solubility
will shift equilibrium to REDUCE solubility
titration
A laboratory procedure in which a substance in a solution of known concentration is reacted with another substance in a solution of unknown concentration in order to determine the unknown concentration.
½ equivlance point
pH = pKa at _______
equivalence point
equal number of moles of each substance (neutralized)
pH meter
an electrode that is submerged in an aqueous solution; a voltage is measured that is pH dependent, so it can be determined directly
acid-base indicators
weak acids or bases in which the acid/base and its conjugate are different colors
2 or more
a polyprotic acid will have _______ equivalence point(s)
< 0.1 g/L
solution is insoluble when concentration is _______
0.1 to 10 g/L
solution is slightly soluble when concentration is _______
> 10 g/L
solution is soluble when concentration is _______
Temperature
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction
molar solubility (mol/L)
ion concentrations in the Ksp expression come from the _______ of the salt (# of moles of salt that dissolve in 1 L of solution); this gives the amount of the salt that dissolved
gram solubility (g/L)
multiply the molar solubility value by the molar mass of the salt dissolved to get this value
complex ions
typically water soluble and form from a metal ion and a ligand
amphoteric hydroxides
special case species that form complex ions in base (also react with acids)
Buffer capacity
Amount of acid or base that the buffer can neutralize
titrant
a solution of known concentration that is used to titrate a solution of unknown concentration
Analyte
solution with unknown concentration in a titration (in flask)
titration curve
a plot of the pH of the analyte (in the flask) as a function of the volume of the titrant (in the buret) added
spectator ions
appear on both sides of the overall ionic equation
net ionic equation
complete ion equation without the spectator ions
a precipitate will form if Qsp...
Qsp = Ksp or Qsp > Ksp
Qsp < Ksp
a precipitate will NOT form if Qsp...
pH effect on solubility
pH can effect the solubility of a salt
metal hydroxides [ex: Zn(OH)2]
the solubility of these are effected by pH:
the solubility of these are effected by pH:
metal salts of the conjugate bases of weak acids (ex: CaF2)
solubility is not effected in acidic solution or basic solution
metal salts of the conjugate bases of strong acids (ex: AgCl)