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Fundamentals of Chemistry VII


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solid, liquide, gas
3 states of matter
Liquids
moderate to high density. particles move about but remain in contact with one another.
How do you change something into a gas?
the thermal energy and kinetic energy of atoms must increase
How do you change something to a solid
thermal energy and kinetic energy of atoms must decrease
Low temp
collisions are infrequent and gentle = LOW pressure
High temp
collisions are frequent and forceful = HIGH pressure
Partial pressures
In a gas mixture, the pressure that each gas exerts is called the partial pressure of a gas.
Dalton's Law of partial pressure
states that the pressures of the individual gases in any mixture add up to the total pressure of the gas mixture.
Changes of state
Chemical structure of water molecules doesn't change in transfer of state. What changes is the degree to which water molecules interact with one another.
Boiling Point
??T bp = Kbp • m • i
Heating curves
cause temperature changes. Phase changes occur at constant temp.
The state of a substance
at any temperature is a balance between attraction of particles to 1 another and the thermal energy of the particles which associate the particle.
What do covalent bonds strength depend on?
depend on the nature of the constituent atoms and the "order" of the bond
Making/Breaking bonds
Making bonds releases energy from the system, breaking bonds requires input of energy into the system
Ion-Ion Attraction
As result of strong attraction between positive and negative ions, all ionic compounds are solids at room temperature. In general it takes very high temperatures to melt ionic solids
Dipole-Dipole Attraction between Polar Molecules
Molecules that contain polar bonds attract one another more strongly than non-polar molecules because the expositive charged atom in 1 molecule attracts negatively charged neighbor atoms.
Dispersion Forces
All molecules are attracted to 1 another because the electrons of each molecule are attracted to protons of nuclei of nearby molecules.
H Bonding
Any molecule that contains O-H or N-H covalent bonds will form H bonds
Physical Properties of water
high boiling point for size.
What does each water molecule have?
2 dipoles due to partial separation of charges. Each water molecule acts as H bond diner and H acceptor = excessive H bonding in bulk water
What does each ice molecule have?
Each water molecule makes 4 H bonds with 4 surround water molecules
Solutes Disturb Water Structure
H bonds in water = broken
What do Hydrocarbons and other non polar molecules form?
NO compensating interaction with water to compensate for the negative entropy change
Electrolytes and Dissociation
Solution of electrolytes in water = conductive
What do charged species do?
Interact with water dipoles to form many weak interactions. Many weak interactions are made that release energy.
Nonelectrolytes
Can dissolve in water but aren't conductive
solubility
A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
Increases as you raise them
Solubility of solids in water does what?
Cold
Do gases dissolve better in cold or hot water?
COOH groups
Ionic and are either fully or partially charged when in an aqueous solution
Solid and Weak bonding
the more weak interactions with water that a molecule can form = higher solubility
S orbitals
spherical and surround the nucleus
p orbitals
3 mutually perpendicular dumbbell shaped orbitals; second to fill from 2nd energy level on up; can hold max of 6 electrons
Atomic Shell 1
Has 1 subshell = 1 s subshell has 1 orbital holding 2 electrons
Atomic Shell 2
Has 2 subshells - the 2s subshell has 1 orbital which holds 2 electrons.
Atomic orbitals combine to form what?
Molecular orbitals. 2 atomic orbitals forms 2 molecular orbitals.
New orbitals.
Bonding Molecular Orbital
bond energy
energy required to break a bond
Single bond
1 pair of shared electrons
negative
at the beginning of a redox reaction, the charge of the anode is
Positive
Anode (Electrolytic Cell)
IUPAC
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
So3
Sulfur trioxide
N2O5
dinitrogen pentaoxide
NH3
Ammonia
ClO2
Chlorine Dioxide
IBr
Iodine Monobromide
Why don't groups 1A and 11A generally form covalent bonds?
the sodium atom only has 2 electrons in its valence shell
ionic compounds
_______ dissolve in water
Polyvalent Ions
Atoms can gain or lose more than 1 electron
Balancing Formulas of Ionic Compounds
Rule of charged balance for an ionic compound is total amount of positive charge must equal total amount of negative charge
Naming Ionic Compounds
Metal (Cation) name + Non-Metal (Antion) stem + ide
Naming Compounds with Transition Metals
Roman numerals or suffixes added to stem words are used to indicate the charge on the transition metal
Polyatomic Ions
A group of atoms covalently bonded together which together have a charge that comes from either gained or lost electrons to gain an octet