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Level 114

Strengths of Acids & Bases


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Acid Dissociation Constant (Ka)
The ratio of the concentration of the dissociated (or ionized) form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated (nonionized) form.
Acidic Solution
A solution in which [H+] is greater than [OH-]
Alkaline Solution or Basic Solution
A solution in which [H+] is less than [OH-]
Base Dissociation Constant (Kb)
The ratio of the concentration of the conjugate acid times the concentration of the hydroxide ion to the concentration of the base.
conjugate acid
in reverse reaction can act as acid;
conjugate acid-base pair
2 ions or l\molecules relate by the loss or gain of one hydrogen ion
Diprotic Acids
Acids that contain two ionizable hydrogen.
end point
point in a titration at which an indicator changes color
equivalence point
equal number of moles of each substance (neutralized)
Hydronium Ion (H3O+)
A water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion.
Ion-Product Constant for Water (Kw)
The product of the concentration of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water.
Lewis Base
A substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
Monoprotic Acids
Acids that contain one ionizable hydrogen.
Neutral Solution
Any aqueous solution in which [H+] and [OH-] are equal.
Neutralization reaction
A chemical reaction between an acid and a base
pH
= -log10 [H?(aq)]
Self-Ionization
The reaction in which water molecules produce ions.
Standard solution
a solution of known concentration that is used to combine with a sample of an unknown concentration
Strong acid
An acid that donates its H+ ions to water in a reaction that goes completely to products
Strong Base
_______ dissociate completely into metal ions and hydroxide ion in aqueous solutions.
titration
A laboratory procedure in which a substance in a solution of known concentration is reacted with another substance in a solution of unknown concentration in order to determine the unknown concentration.
Triprotic Acid
Acids that contain three ionizable hydrogens.
Weak Acid
_______ ionize only slightly in aqueous solutions.
Weak Base
_______ react with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base.