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Level 11

Fundamentals of Chemistry VI


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the definition of mass
the ammount of matter in an object
the definition of weight
the result of mass acted upon by gravity
give an example of a homogengeous mixture.
one substance formed by combining substances (example: salt water)
an example of hetergeneous mixture
a mixture of 2 substances that are different as of the final result such as sand and water.
definition of a compound.
a pure substance that is made up of two or more elements in a fixed ratio by mass.
definition of an element
a substance that consists of identical atoms.
definition of a molecule
a tightly bound combination of two or more atoms that act as a single unit.
element consisting of single atoms
definintion of a monoatomic element.
what is a diatomic element?
elements that consist of only 2 atoms
what is a polyatomic element?
an element with 3 or more atoms per molecule.
definition of mass number
the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
definition of atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
definition of an isotope?
atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
the definition of electron configuration?
the arrangement of electrons in the extranuclear space
definition of ground-state electron
the electron configuration of the lowest energy state of an atom.
ground state electron configuration
the electron configuration of the lowest energy state of an atom.
orbital; electrons
in an orbital box diagram the box represents an _______ and the arrows represent _______
definition of valence shell
the outermost incomplete shell of an atom
definiton of valence electron
an electron in a valence shell
outermost shell
the size of an atom is determined by its _______
What is ionization energy?
energy needed to remove an electron
example of ionization energy.
lithium losing an electron and becoming lithium ion
Acid
A compound containing Hydrogen which it will donate in a reaction.
Alkaline
(aka basic) Condition caused by an abundance of hydroxyl ions (OH-) resulting in a pH of greater than 7.0
Amino acid
20 most common have a central carbon (alpha carbon) bonded to an NH2 group and COOH group; In 19 of 20 C is chiral center. R is a functional group that determines the amino acid.
Anion
(-) Gain an electron
Base
A cleaning product is usually a ACID/BASE?
Biochemistry
The branch of organic chemistry that studies the chemical reactions of living systems
Carbohydrate
A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that serves as the main source of energy for most living things
Cation
(+) Lose an electron
Chemical Bond
An attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or groups of atoms in a molecule or compound.
colloid
A mixture containing small, undissolved particles that do not settle out.
Complementary base pairing
Hydrogen bonding between adenine and thymine(or uracil) bases or between quinine and cytosine bases
Dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction that builds complex organic molecules
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Nucleic acid that carries hereditary information from one generation to the next
Disaccharide
2 bonded sugars
Electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle located in the electron cloud outside the nucleus. It determines how atoms combine with other atoms.
endergonic
processes that are not spontaneous and therefore have a positive delta G
Enzyme
A protein catalyst that controls the rate of chemical reactions in cells
Exergonic
processes with a -delta G that are spontaneous
Fat
A complex organic molecule formed from glycerol and one or more fatty acids
functional group
affects a biological molecules function in a characteristic way
Glycosidic bond
A covalent bond between two monosaccharaides
Gram molecular weight
(aka Mole) The weight of a substance in grams equal to the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule of the substance
High-energy bond
A chemical bond that releases energy when hydrolyzed; the energy can be used to transfer the hydrolyzed product to another compound
hydrogen bond
A particularly strong attraction between a nonbonding pair of electrons and an electrophilic O-H or N-H hydrogen. Hydrogen bonds have bond energies of abt 20 kJ/mol compared with about 400 kJ/mol for typical C-H bonds.
Hydrolysis
A chemical reaction that produces simpler products from more complex organic molecules
ion
A charged atom
isomer
a compound with the same molecular formula as another compound, but a different arrangement of the atoms
Isotope
An atom of a particular element that contains a different number of neutrons
lipid
a class of biomolecules whose structures are mainly nonpolar
Monosaccharide
A simple carbohydrate, consisting of a carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and either an aldehyde or ketone group
Neutral
3rd degree substrate SN1 and E1
neutron
¹0n
Nucleic acid
(biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
Nucleotide
An organic compound consisting of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups
Peptide bond
A covalent bond joining the amino acid and the carboxyl group of another amino acid
Phospholipid
A lipid composed of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a polar head group; found in all membranes
Polymer
A long chain of repeating subunits
Polynucleotide
A chain of many nucleotides
Protein
50 or more bonded amino acids
proton
¹1P
Purine
The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine
Pyrimidine
Any of the nucleic acid bases thymine, cytosine, and uracil
Quaternary Structure
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
Radioisotope
An isotope that breaks up into smaller atoms and give off radiation when it happens
R group
An organic chemical group attached to the central carbon atom in an amino acid
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
nucleic acid that carries information from DNA to sites where proteins are manufactured in the cells and that directs and participates in the assembly of proteins
Rule of octets
Principle that an element is chemically stable is it contains eight electrons in its outer shell
solute
A _______ is a substance that dissolves in a solvent to make a solution.
solvent
A _______ is a substance that can dissolve other substances.
Steroid
A lipid having a four-ring structure, includes cholesterol, steroid hormones, and vitamin D
Structural protein
A protein that contributes to the structure of cells, cell parts, and membranes
triacylglycerol
a lipid consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or triglyceride
Which number tells us the identity of an atom?
The number of protons identifies the atom, and is the atomic number
(1) Yes, O2 is a molecule but not a compound
Is it possible to have a molecule of an element? A molecule of a compound? Give examples.
(1) Nonpolar covalent bonds
What type of bonding is produced by the equal sharing of an electron pair between two atoms? By unequal sharing?
Exergonic reactions release energy and Endergonic reactions require energy
What is the difference between endergonic and exergonic chemical reactions?
What properties of a water molecule enable it to act as a good solvent for ionic molecules?
The polar water molecules surround ions. The positive region of water molecules is attracted to the negative ions, and the negative region of the water molecules is attracted to the positive ions. Making it a universal solvent.
pH 11 has a higher number of OH- (hydroxyl ions) than a pH 9
Why does a higher number, such as pH 11, indicate a stronger base than a pH of 9, whereas a higher number such as pH 5, indicates a weaker acid than pH 3?
They all contain long chains of repeating units
Why are starch, DNA, and RNA all considered to by polymers?
Distinguish among primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels of proteins structure.
Primary Structure: the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
Carbohydrates are polymers with repeating units of glucose.
How could you distinguish between carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids?
1st law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy)
Energy cannot be created or destroyed just converted from one form to another. It is converted in isolated systems.
2nd law of thermodynamics
spontaneous change (needs no outside influence)
Specific Heat
is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by on Celsius degree or one kelvin.
Specific heat of water
1 cal/gx degrees C
buffer
solution in which the pH remains fairly constant when small amounts of acid or base are added
Kilocalorie
Kcal = 1kcal = 1000 cal = 1 Cal
Kilojoule
kj - 1 kj = 239 cal. = 1 kcal = 4.184 kj