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Level 107

Fluid, Electrolyte & Acid-Base Balance


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erythema
Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes that is a result of dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries; sunburn is an example.
Aldosterone
Increases reabsorption of Na and water and excretion of K in kidneys. Causes vasoconstriction, increases BP. (main Na-retaining hormone)
Electrolyte
A substance which when molten or in an aqueous solution can conduct electricity (and is broken down by it)
extracellular fluids
Portion of body fluids composed of interstitial fluid and blood plasma.
filtration
a method of separating solid particles from a liquid or gas, using filter paper
active transport
Movement of materials across the cell membrane by means of chemical activity that allows the cell to admit larger molecules than would otherwise be possible.
angiotensin
Substance produced by renin that causes some vasoconstriction.
anion gap
Difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions: determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions.
anions
Elements which gain electrons become _______. (anions or cations)
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Substance stored in the posterior pituitary gland that is released in response to changes in blood osmolarity.
arterial blood gas
The oxygen and carbon dioxide content of arterial blood, measured by various methods to assess the adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation and the acid-base status of the body.
autologous transfusion
Transfusion procedure in which blood is removed from a donor and stored for a time before it is returned to the donor's circulation.
buffer
solution in which the pH remains fairly constant when small amounts of acid or base are added
colloid osmotic pressure
Pressure that tends to keep fluid in the intravascular compartment.
colloids
Blood and blood components.
concentration gradient
Difference between two concentrations.
crystalloids Intravenous (IV)
fluid and electrolyte therapy.
dehydration
Excessive loss of water from the body tissues, accompanied by a disturbance of body electrolytes.
dyssomnias
Primary sleep disorders.
fluid volume deficit (FVD)
Alteration characterized by the loss of fluids and electrolytes in an isotonic fashion.
fluid volume excess (FVE)
Alteration characterized by the abnormal retention of fluids and electrolytes in an isotonic fashion.
hemolysis
Breakdown of red blood cells and release of hemoglobin as may result from the administration of hypotonic intravenous solutions that cause progressive swelling and rupture of the erythrocytes.
homeostasis
State of relative constancy in the internal environment of the body, maintained naturally by physiological adaptive mechanisms.
hydrostatic pressure
Pressure exerted by a liquid.
Hypertonic
10%DW - D10W
Hypotonic
0.45%- 1/2NS
infiltration .
Dislodging an intravenous catheter or needle from a vein into the subcutaneous space
infusion pump
Device that delivers a measured amount of fluid over a period of time.
insensible water loss
Loss of fluid from the body by evaporation, such as that which normally occurs during respiration.
interstitial fluid
Fluid that fills the spaces between most of the cells of the body and that provides a substantial portion of the liquid environment of the body.
intracellular fluids
Liquids within the cell membrane.
intravascular fluid
Blood plasma
ions
at the anode, atoms become
Isotonic
5%DW - D5W
metabolic acidosis
Abnormal condition of high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid caused by either a primary increase in hydrogen ions or a decrease in bicarbonate.
metabolic alkalosis
Abnormal condition characterized by the significant loss of acid from the body or by increased levels of bicarbonate.
milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)
Unit of measurement representing the number of grams of the specific electrolyte dissolved in a liter of plasma.
oncotic pressure
Total influence of a protein on the osmotic activity of plasma water.
osmolarity
Osmotic pressure of a solution expressed in osmols or milliosmols per liter of the solution.
osmols
Quantity of a substance in solution in the form of molecules, ions, or both that has the same osmotic pressure as 1 mole of an ideal nonelectrolyte.
osmoreceptor
Receptor that is sensitive to fluid concentration in the blood plasma and that regulates the secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
osmosis
Movement of a pure solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a lower solute concentration to one with a higher solute concentration.
osmotic pressure
Drawing power for water, which depends on the number of molecules in the solution.
respiratory acidosis
Abnormal condition characterized by increased arterial carbon dioxide concentration, excess carbonic acid, and increased hydrogen ion concentration.
respiratory alkalosis
Abnormal condition characterized by decreased arterial carbon dioxide concentration and decreased hydrogen ion concentration.
sensible water loss
Water loss that occurs though excess perspiration.
solute
A _______ is a substance that dissolves in a solvent to make a solution.
solvent
A _______ is a substance that can dissolve other substances.
transfusion reaction
Systemic response by the body to the administration of blood incompatible with that of the recipient.
vascular access devices
Catheters, cannulas, or infusion ports designed for long-term, repeated access to the vascular system.
venipuncture
Technique in which a vein is punctured transcutaneously by a sharp, rigid stylet or by a needle attached to a syringe.
acidosis
An increase of hydrogen ions producing a lower pH.
alkalosis
A decrease of hydrogen ions producing a higher pH.
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
hormone secreted from atrial cells of the heart in response to atrial stretching and an increase in circulating blood volume. ANP has been identified as a diuretic that causes sodium loss and inhibits the thirst mechanism
transcellular fluid
Transcellular fluid is fluid separated from other fluids by a cellular barrier and consists of cerebrospinal, pleural, gastrointestinal, intraocular, peritoneal, and synovial fluids (Elgart, 2004). Loss of transcellular fluid can produce fluid and electrolyte disturbance.
Phlebitis .
Inflammation of a vein
solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Diffusion
Ability of gases to mix
Hypovolemia
Body loses both water and electrolytes from the ECF.
Cations
Positively charged electrolytes
Edema
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues.