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Level 106

Acids, Bases & Acid-Base Reactions


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H3O?
Hydronium ion
Arrhenius Acid
Any substance that generates hydronium ions when added to water
Acidic Solution
A solution in which [H+] is greater than [OH-]
binary acid
contains only 2 different elements (H and an electronegative element), many common inorganic acids,
Oxyacids (or oxoacids)
They contain hydrogen, oxygen and one other element
monoprotic acid
can donate only one proton per molecule
polyprotic acid
can donate more than one proton per molecule
Diprotic Acid
Any acid that contains two ionizable protons
Triprotic Acid
Acids that contain three ionizable hydrogens.
Strong acid
An acid that donates its H+ ions to water in a reaction that goes completely to products
Reversible Reaction
A chemical reaction in which the products can react to re-form the reactants
Weak Acid
_______ ionize only slightly in aqueous solutions.
Arrhenius base
A substance that produces hydroxide ions when added to water
Basic solution
A solution with a significant concentration of hydroxide ions
Strong Base
_______ dissociate completely into metal ions and hydroxide ion in aqueous solutions.
Weak Base
_______ react with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base.
Neutralization reaction
A chemical reaction between an acid and a base
BrØnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction
A chemical reaction in which a proton, H?, is transferred
BrØnsted-Lowry Acid
A substance that donates protons, H?, in BrØnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction
BrØnsted-Lowry Base
A substance that accepts protons, H?, in BrØnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction
conjugate acid
in reverse reaction can act as acid;
conjugate base
in reverse reaction can act as base;
conjugate acid-base pair
2 ions or l\molecules relate by the loss or gain of one hydrogen ion
Amphoteric substance
A substance that can act as either a BrØnsted-Lowry acide or a BrØnsted-Lowry base, depending on the circumstances