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Acid Base


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Acid
A compound containing Hydrogen which it will donate in a reaction.
Base
A cleaning product is usually a ACID/BASE?
conjugate acid
in reverse reaction can act as acid;
conjugate base
in reverse reaction can act as base;
Acid = HC2H3O2
HC2H3O2 + NH3 ? NH4¹? + C2H3O2¹?
Base = NH3
HC2H3O2 + NH3 ? NH4¹? + C2H3O2¹?
Count the hydrogen's
What is the first thing you do when identifying acids and bases?
Acid = HF
OH¹? + HF ? F¹? + H2O
Base = OH¹?
OH¹? + HF ? F¹? + H2O
HOH
What is another way you can write H2O?
Neutralization reaction
A chemical reaction between an acid and a base
equivalence point
equal number of moles of each substance (neutralized)
indicator
A compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base.
pH
= -log10 [H?(aq)]
acidic
a solution with a pH less than 7.0 is
basic
a solution with a pH greater than 7.0 is
acid-base reactions
reactions which fall under either the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, or Lewis definition; reactions that change the concentrations of H+ and OH-
H+
hydrogen ion
OH-
hydroxide ion
Dissociation
Condition where a solute, when dissolved, breaks up into its component ions
dissociation constant
a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the tendency of a larger object to dissociate reversibly into smaller components
ionization constant of water
Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10^-14
Arrhenius acids and bases
a compound that dissociates releasing a hydrogen ion (acid) or hydroxide ion (base) in an aqueous solution
Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases
a compound is a hydrogen ion donor (acid) or is a hydrogen ion acceptor (base)
Lewis acids and bases
a compound is a electron pair-acceptor (acid) or is a electron-pair donor (base)
Oxidation-reduction reaction
A reaction that results in the change of the oxidation states of some participating molecules.
salt
An ionic compound made from the neutralization of an acid with a base.
titration
A laboratory procedure in which a substance in a solution of known concentration is reacted with another substance in a solution of unknown concentration in order to determine the unknown concentration.
Standard solution
a solution of known concentration that is used to combine with a sample of an unknown concentration
precipitation reaction
a reaction in which dissolved ions form a substance with low solubility
Bitter
Solutions of bases taste .................
buffer
solution in which the pH remains fairly constant when small amounts of acid or base are added
concentration
a mixture that has a large amount of solute in the solvent; a strong solution
conductivity
physical property of transmitting electric current
Dispersion
Nonpolar-nonpolar, a temporary dipole forms in a nonpolar molecule which leads to a temporary dipole to form in another nonpolar molecule, weakest and shortest lived.
Electrolyte
A substance which when molten or in an aqueous solution can conduct electricity (and is broken down by it)
heat of solution
the difference between the energies of breaking attractions and forming attractions.
hydrangeas
flowers that change color in acidic or basic soils
ionization
changing from a gas to the plasma phase; atoms become ions when the outer electrons are stripped away
Litmus
A indicator - solution which changes to red when it is added to an acid and blue in Alkali
molarity
# moles in solute / 1L of solution
neutralization
a chemical reaction between an acid and a base that takes place in a water solution
nitrogen
1s2 2s2 2p3
proton
¹1P
saturated
a solution that is in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance. (maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
solubility
A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
solute
A _______ is a substance that dissolves in a solvent to make a solution.
solvent
A _______ is a substance that can dissolve other substances.
Sour
Solutions of acids taste ..................
supersaturated
a solution that contains more dissolver substance than a saturated solution does. normally these solutions are forced into being and are unstable (easily crystallized). holds more then maximum amount of solute under normal conditions. UNSTABLE
unsaturated
a solution that is not in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance and in which more of the substance can dissolve. (less than maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
collisions
one thing that must occur during a chem rxn
Temperature
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction