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Level 100

Solubility


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solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solute
A _______ is a substance that dissolves in a solvent to make a solution.
solvent
A _______ is a substance that can dissolve other substances.
aqueous
the most common solvent is water and solutions that contain water
Homogeneous
A mixture in which all the individual substances are evenly mixed throughout.
Heterogeneous
A mixture in which one or more substances are unevenly mixed.
particles
atoms or molecules
alloys
(solid solutions)formed when two or more metals or non-metals are combined together
brass,stainless steel,sterling silver
where do you find alloys in your local environment?list some examples
purpose of antifreeze in your car
some solutes can be dissolved in a liquid solvent,and cause the freezing point of the solvent to lower
Suspension
A heterogeneous mixture that contains particles much larger that a colloidal suspension
colloids
Blood and blood components.
Brownian motion
particles are in constant random motion
dissolving
occurs at the surface of the solid
crystallize
breaking the solid into smaller pieces greatly increases its surface area
what does it mean to dissolve
solute breaks up in the solvent.
what does it mean to be polar molecule
separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment
insoluble
does not dissolve in water
solubility
A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
dilute
a mixture that has a small amount of solute in the solvent; a weak solution
concentrated
(of a substance or solution) present in a high proportion relative to other substances; having had water or other diluting agent removed or reduced
saturated solution
A mixture that contains as much dissolved solute as is possible at a given temperature.
unsaturated solution
A mixture that contains less dissolved solute than is possible at a given temperature.
supersaturated solution
A mixture that has more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at a given temperature.
Electrolyte
A substance which when molten or in an aqueous solution can conduct electricity (and is broken down by it)
nonelectrolyte
are substances that form no ions in water and cant conduct electricity ex;alcohol and sucrose
Dissociation
Condition where a solute, when dissolved, breaks up into its component ions
ionization
changing from a gas to the plasma phase; atoms become ions when the outer electrons are stripped away
polar
a molecule in which the centroid of the positive charges is different from the centroid of the negative charges.
non polar
A non-polar molecule is a molecule which shares electrons equally and therefore, lacks oppositely charged ends
soluble
A substance that can dissolve is said to be _______.
Acid
A compound containing Hydrogen which it will donate in a reaction.
Base
A cleaning product is usually a ACID/BASE?
neutralization
a chemical reaction between an acid and a base that takes place in a water solution
salt
An ionic compound made from the neutralization of an acid with a base.
K2SO4
soluble
Ga(NO3)2
soluble
Cl- is insoluble with..
Ag+, Pb^2+, and Hg2^2+
Br- is insoluble with..
Ag+, Pb^2+, and Hg2^2+
Sulfate is insoluble with..
Ca2+, Sr2+, Pb2+ and Ba2+
KOH
Potassium Hydroxide
CaCl2
soluble, most chlorides are soluble
AgBr
insoluble, this bromide isnt soluble
Pb(NO3)2
soluble, the anion NO3- is soluble
PbSO4
insoluble, even tho most sulfates soluble, this isnt
concentration
a mixture that has a large amount of solute in the solvent; a strong solution
saturated with excess
has more then the maximum - excess shows on the bottom
tincture
solution where alcohol is the solvent
alloy
a material made of elements that has metallic properties. Usually to make a substance superior than its elemental components
colloid
A mixture containing small, undissolved particles that do not settle out.
miscible
2 liquids that dissolve into one another
temperature and solids
directly proportional - hot/ice tea
temperature and gases
inversely proportional - powerplants
pressure and gases
directly proportional - soda, the "Bends"
Water
weak nucleophile, protic
adhesive force
attraction between different kinds of molecules
cohesive force
attraction between same kinds of molecules
NH4NO3
soluble
NH4Br
soluble
Mg(C2H3O2)2
soluble
MgS
insoluble
Na3PO4
soluble
Ca(OH)2
Calcium Hydroxide
CaCO3
calcium carbonate
Al2(SO4)3
soluble
CaSO4
soluble
Ag2SO4
soluble
PbCl2
insoluble
SrSO4
insoluble
Fe(OH)3
insoluble
Co(ClO4)2
soluble
Ba(ClO3)2
barium chlorate
CaS
insoluble
LiC2H3O2
soluble
SnCO3
insoluble
MgI2
soluble
BaBr2
soluble
Ba(OH)2
Barium Hydroxide
CsOH
soluble
BaSO3
insoluble
Na2SO3
soluble
Mg(NO3)2
soluble
Mg3(PO4)2
insoluble
FeSO4
soluble
Ga2(SO4)3
soluble
Be(OH)2
insoluble
Mg(OH)2
insoluble
FeS
insoluble
AgClO3
soluble
Ba(C2H3O2)2
soluble
Fe(ClO4)2
soluble
MgSO4
magnesium sulfate
AgCl
insoluble
AlBr3
soluble
FeBr3
soluble
Ca(NO3)2
soluble
MgCO3
insoluble
(NH4)2SO4
ammonium sulfate
Li2CO3
soluble
SnS
insoluble
Al2(CO3)3
aluminum carbonate
Mn(OH)3
insoluble