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Level 10

Fundamentals of Chemistry V


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Fact
A statement based on direct experience.
scientific notation
_______ is used to represent a very large or very small number as a power of 10
meters (m)
Length is measured in _______
liters (L)
volume is measured in _______
grams (g)
Mass is measured in _______
calories (cal)
Energy is measured in _______
moles (mol)
Matter or amount of matter is measured in _______
non zero digits
_______ are always significant
never significant
zeros at the beginning of a number are _______
Always significant
zeros at the end of a number, that contain a decimal, are _______
either significant or not significant
zeros at the end of a number containing no decimal point is _______
independent
mass is _______ of location
Fahrenheit
_______ is defined as by setting the normal freezing point of water at 32 degrees F and the boiling point at 212 degrees F
F = 9/5 degrees C + 32
The equation to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit
The equation used to find Celsius
C= 5/9 ( degrees F - 32)
absolute scale
Zero is the lowest possible temperature, also called the _______
conversion factor
a fraction used to convert from one unit to another
Gas, solid, liquid
What are the three states of matter?
d = m/v
what is the equation to find the density of an object
kinetic and potential
Two types of energy are
increases ; increases
Kinetic energy _______ as the objects velocity _______
greater
If you are in the water and an object is in the air above you, is the apparent height of the object greater or less than the actual height?
Specific Heat (SH)
The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 degree Celsius
Equation of specific heat
SH x m x (t2-t1)
pure substances and mixtures
Matter is divided into _______ and _______.
pure substances
_______ are fixed compositions and cannot be further purified
Latin
Most element names and symbols ( two letters) are derived from English while others are derived from the _______ language
homogeneous or heterogeneous
Mixtures may be _______ or _______
atoms
all elements are comprised of tiny particles called_______
compounds
_______ are formed by the chemical combination of two or more of the same or different kinds of atoms.
created or destroyed
Matter can neither be _______ or _______.
H2, N2, O2, F2, CL2, BR2, and I2
There are seven elements that occur as diatomic molecules: they are ....._______
polyatomic elements
elements that have three or more atoms per molecule are called
monatomic elements
_______ consist of single atoms per molecule
Protons, Neutrons, and electrons
The three subatomic particles are ?
negative (-)
Electrons have a _______ charge
positive (+)
Protons have a _______ charge
Neutral (0)
Neutrons have a _______ charge
nucleus
a proton is located in the _______ of an atom
outside
a electron is located in the _______ of an atom
Atomic Mass (amu)
the unit of mass on the periodic table is called the _______
453.6 g
1 lb is = to _______ g
2.205 lb
1 kg is = to _______ lb
3.785 L
1 gallons is = to _______ L
33.81 fl oz
1 L is = to _______ fl oz
K= degrees c + 273
The equation to find Kelvins (K)
law of conservation of energy
energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed
homogeneous matter
_______ has uniform composition throughout
heterogeneous matter
_______ has non uniform composition throughout
Law of Conservation of Mass
During a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products
7
there are how many diatomic elements
columns
The elements that have the MOST in common (that are the most alike) are the elements in the same:
periods
The horizontal row of elements are called _______
metals, metalloids, and non metals.
Three groups on the periodica table consist of _______, _______, and _______.
metals
_______ are malleable and ductile
nonmetals
_______ lie on the right of the periodic table and do not conduct electricity.
Metalloids
...Elements that are on the "steps" of the periodic table with properties between metals & nonmetals
Silicon
_______ is a metalloid and semiconductor which can conduct electricity at higher applied voltages
electron configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom
lower
electrons that are closer to the nucleus have a _______ energy
Higher
Electron affinity tends to become from left to right across a row of the periodic table
2
electron shell #1 can hold _______ electrons
8
electron shell #2 can hold _______ electrons
18
electron shell #3 can hold _______ electrons
32
electron shell #4 can hold _______ electrons
Noble Gas Notation
the Noble gas preceding the particular atom indicates the electron configuration.
Valence Shell
The orbitals with the highest occupied principle quantum number.
valence electron
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
nucleus and filled shells; valence electron
in the Lewis dot structure, the symbol of the elements represents the _______ and _______; The dots represent the _______
Ionization Energy
Energy needed to remove an electron from the valence shell of an atom - how easily an atom can become an ion (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A METAL)
left to right
ionization energy increases from _______ to _______ on the periodic table
Weight ; mass
_______ is dependent on location whereas _______ is independent of location.
silver (ag)
give an example of a metal and its atomic symbol.
specific gravity is defined as?
the density of a substance compared to water as a standard.
energy is defined as?
the ability to do work
what is the difference between potential energy and kinetic energy.
kinetic energy is the energy of motion and potential energy is stored energy.
give an example of potential energy
a roller coaster at the top of a hill
a rollercoaster moving down hill
an example of kinetic energy
energy can neither be created nor destroyed
what is the law of concervation of energy?
mass can neither be created nor destroyed.
what is the law of conservation of mass?
what is the definition of specific heat?
the ammounf of heat required to change 1 gram of a substance to one degree celsius.
bromine
what is the only liquid non metal that is a halogen?
10,000 grams
how many grams are in 10 kilo grams?
12,000 kilograms
how many grams are in 12 kilograms?
3.456x10^6
write this in scientific notation. 3,456,000
1.98700x10^-3
write in scientific notation. (.00198700)
118 and 77
there are _______ known elements and _______ naturally occuring elements?
matter is _______
anything that has mass or takes up space
chemistry is _______
the study of matter
s,p,d,,f
what are the letters used to describe the subshells 1,2,3,and 4 (in order)
3
how many sub shells are present in shell #3
32
how many electrons are in shell #4
8
how many electrons in shell #2
2
how many electrons in shell #1
18
how many electrons in shell #3
give an example of a chemical change.
The burning of propain gas which makes co2
ice metling into a liquid.
what is an example of a physical change?
in a chemical change what happens?
substances get used up and others form in their place
Exponential notation is
represents large or small numbers as powers of 10
carbon 12 and carbon 13
give an example of 2 isotopes.
what is the difference between mass and weight?
mass is independant of location and weight is dependant of location.
conversion factor is?
the ratio of 2 different units used as a mutiplier to change from 1 unit to another.