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Level 81

Impulse & Momentum


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inertia
_______ is the property of an object that leads it to resist any change in motion
Newton's 1st law of motion
An object continues in a state of rest, of uniform motion in a straight line, unless acted upon by an unbalance force
Newton's 2nd Law of motion
a resultant force acting on a body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body
Newton's 3rd law of motion
For every action (force), there is an equal and opposite reaction (force)
momentum
(p) vector quantity describing the quantity of motion or inertia in motion. Recognizes that both mass and velocity have a part in the motion of an object and is proportional to both (is zero …
impulse
a large change in momentum over a short period of time
elastic collision
Kinetic energy is conserved and in a collision the two objects would not lock together but go in opposite directions
inelastic collision
A collision in which the colliding objects become distorted, generate heat, and possibly stick together.
Law of Conservation of Momentum
If no external forces act on a system, then the total momentum of that system remains the same
vector
a displacement distinguished by magnitude and direction but not by location.
scalar
a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction
Examples of elastic collision
Stop and go, in and out, and one in two out
Collide and stick
Example of inelastic collision
Isolated System
A system that has are no energy transfers between that system and its surroundings.
kinematics
branch of mechanics that explains the "what" and "how" of motion
Dynamics
A branch of physics that focuses on force and how they relate to motion.
Position
Is the distance and direction away from a reference point
displacement
A change in position (delta p).
Velocity
a speed in a particular direction.
uniform motion
constant velocity with no change in direction
Non uniform motion
Is when the velocity of an object is not constant
Instantaneous Velocity
How fast an object is moving and direction of motion at each instant in time
acceleration
(physics) a rate of change of velocity
work
a force acting upon an object to cause a displacement. (key words: force, displacement, and cause)
Closed System
A system containing a fixed amount of matter; it can still exchange energy with the surroundings.
Centripetal Force
A force directed towards the center of a circle that causes an object to follow a circular path
Tangental velocity
Is the velocity tangent to its circular path
Monochromatic
light source with single wavelength
Given Action and Reaction Forces, Determine if There is a Net Force Resulting in Acceleration
two objects may exert the same force on each other but one may accelerate because it has a smaller mass
p = mv
Calculate the Momentum of an Object When Given Mass and Velocity
m = p/v
Calculate the Mass of an Object Given Momentum and Velocity
v = p/m
Calculate the Velocity of an Object Given Mass and Momentum
momentum is doubled/tripled/quadrupled for both scenarios
If Mass is Doubled/Tripled/Quadrupled and Speed Stays the Same, What Happens to Momentum?
Impact Force
the force acting on an object usually when it hits something
Impact Forces
average force of impulse
i = ft
Calculate Impulse When Given Force and Time
t = i/f
Calculate Time When Given Force and Impulse
f = i/t
Calculate Force When Given Impulse and Time
use p =M(vf-vi) and then use i=ft
Calculate the Momentum of an Object After X Seconds Free Fall
use vf= vi + at
Calculate the Final Velocity Given Mass, Force, and Time
More Time = Less Force
Explain How Impact Force Changes If You Increase of Decrease Time
more time to stop = less force
Explain How Stopping Force Changes As Time Changes
use vf = vi +at or T = square root of 2d/a
Be Able to Calculate Force or Time If Given Data to Calculate Change in Momentum
impulse: i = ft
Calculate the Impulse and Impact Force of Car Hitting a Wall and Stopping Versus Hitting a Haystack and Stopping
•longer barrel in a cannon = more velocity because it travels for a longer period of time
When a Gun or Cannonball is Fired Be Able to Explain the Forces, Time, Change in Momentum (Impulse), and Velocity
Inelastic Collisions
stick together