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Level 39

Dynamics


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Dynamics
A branch of physics that focuses on force and how they relate to motion.
Deformation
Any alteration of shape or dimensions of a body caused by stresses.
Elastic
Ability of matter to return to its original dimension or shape after deformation.
Stiffness
The ability of a material to resist stretching.
Plastic deformation
Occurs when a material deforms, or changes shape, as a stress is applied and remains in the new shape when the stress is released.
Tensile point
Force which makes a material to break
inertia
_______ is the property of an object that leads it to resist any change in motion
weight
A force that comes from gravity pulling down on any object with mass
friction
a contact force; type of force between two touching surfaces
static friction
A car drives with its tires rolling freely. Is the friction between the tires and the road kinetic or static?
Kinetic Friction
Friction between moving surfaces
equilibrium
1)starting point of SHM, object is in _______, fnet equals zero
Concurrent forces
Two or more forces acting on a common point but pulling or pushing in different directions.
Statics
The study of objects in a state of equilibrium
Fulcrum
The CENTER POINT in which a LEVER is rotated which. (Also known as PIVOT).
Torque
A "force" that causes rotation because it is exerted at a distance from the axis of rotation.
projectile
An object in the air that is only subject to the force of gravity and wind resistance after it leaves the ground.
trajectory
Path of a projectile
Resultant
A vector sum (includes a magnitude and a direction)
centripetal
center seeking
Tangential
Merely touching; slightly connected; disgressive
Uniform Circular motion
A particle moves in a circle with a constant speed
centripetal acceleration
a = centripetal acceleration
Centripetal Force
A force directed towards the center of a circle that causes an object to follow a circular path
relative motion
Movement in relation to a frame of reference
component
A part or element of a larger whole.
net force
Acceleration depends on the
Newton's 2nd Law
A force on an object causes an object to accelerate in the same direction as the force
Newton's 3rd Law
A measure of the motion of a body equal to the product of its mass and velocity., For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
wave number
in the expression ψ=Asin(ωt-kx) the variable is the
ω/k (wave length/wave number)
in the expression ψ=Asin(ωt-kx) the phase speed of the propagating wave is
bouyancy
in the linearized, non hydrostatic Navier Stokes equations, the quantity gθ/Θ is called the
potential vorticity
in the shallow water system of equations, (β+f/H) is the
Adiabatic
different temperature
Beta Plane
on a _______ f is ≈ f₀+βy where βy<<f₀
no
Is KE conserved?
barotropic
a flow with no horizontal gradients of temperature (i.e., thermal wind=0) is said to be
rising
if the jet stream is advecting cyclonic vorticity at tropopause level, one would expect rising or sinking motion in the tropospheric column below
omega
the QG _______ equation is derived by eliminating the terms that contai…
geopotential tendency
the QG _______ equation is derived by reversing the order of differentiation in the QG PV equation to produce a Poisson-like equation for the time rates of change of gravity times heights of constant pressure surfaces
dispersive
is the wave whose frequency is given by ω= √(C²{k²+L²+(1/(4H²)]) dispersive or non dispersive. _______ Here k and L are the vertical and horizontal wave-numbers and H is the scale height
low frequency
in our analysis of two layer gravity waves, we obtained solutions for high frequency and low frequency waves. the dispersion relation for the later was ω=k[(ubar)±√(σgH₁H₂)/(H₁H₂) where σ=(ρ₂-ρ₁)/ρ₂. these perturbations are best described as _______ waves
beta plane approximations
list the five assumptions or simplifications that form the basis of the quasigeostropic (QG) approximations
Frequency
#cycles/second
diabatic
if Dθ/Dt=Q and not eit is said to bequal to zero,
yes
Is the same true of other nonconservative forces?
exner function
the variable π=(p/p₀)^(R/Cp) is the
rossby radius
in the shallow water vorticity equation, the factor f₀²/gH (units in m⁻²) is the inverse
internal gravity waves
in our analysis or irrotational waves in a two layer fluid, we obtained solutions for high frequency and low frequecy waves. the dispersion relation for the latter was ω=k(U±√(φgH…
ability test
a test that measures potential in some area
abnormal behavior
behavior found not to be acceptable or usual for most of the individuals in a society. May or may not be unlawful.
Achievement test
a test that measures what someone has learned up to that point;designed to measure the effects of specific training program or instruction
affective or mood disorders
behavior typified by extremes of mood, either great elation or deep depression. The individual may be manic or depressed, or may vacillate between states: manic then depressed
Antisocial Personality
People who fail to act according to the standard of society and seemingly are not disturbed by that behavior. They have little feeling for right or wrong.
Anxiety
A vague feeling of fear without a specific cause.
Aptitude Test
An ability test that measures potential in some specific area such as mechanical, artistic, secretarial, or business; indicates whether or not an individual could be expected to do well if they pursue a career in that particular field.
Autism
Abnormal behavior usually found in children under age ten. The child appears to be on their own with little or no communication, and little or desire for personal contact.
Aversion Therapy
A behavior modification technique used on patients whereby a therapist pairs painful or unpleasant stimuli with unwanted or destructive behavior. The client then learns to reduce or stop the destructive behavior.
Behavior Modification
A type of therapy which seeks to change the outward behavior of an individual or for others in that person's sphere of influence.
Behavioral Disorder
Behavior that produces significant and often persistent discomfort in an individual or for others in that person's sphere of influence.
Chemotherapy
A method of treatment of various types of behavior in which drugs are administered to the body.
Client-Centered Therapy
A method of counseling in which the counselor seeds to help the patient by acting as a sounding board without giving the client any suggestions as to solution or answers to the problems. This m…
Compulsion
An individual who performs repeated and disturbing actions without being able to stop or prevent them. Compulsions are the actions of obsessed individuals.
Confabulation
Process of filling in memory gaps with guesses or ideas of what the individual thinks might have happened.
Congruence
The quality of agreeing in most or all of the corresponding points.
Defense Mechanisms
A way of protecting the self from anxiety usually by distorting reality. Includes ten or more ways the person develops and uses these protective responses.
Delusion
A false belief which may be experienced by a psychotic person.
Dream Analysis
A method of discovering the unconscious by attempting to explain an individual's dreams; very subjective; depends on who is doing the analysis.
DSM IV Manual
A manual listing of behavior deemed to be abnormal and listed according to the medical model. Under this listing homosexuality is not abnormal behavior.
Electroshock Therapy
Treatment for abnormal behavior, particularly depression, in which large amounts of electricity are sent through electrodes into the brain.
Extinction
Seeking to reduce or eliminate a behavior by reducing the reinforcement and eventually the behavior stops.
Family Therapy
Type of treatment in which the counselor seeks to meet with all of the members of a family to help resolve problems within the family.
Group Therapy
Type of counseling where several clients meet with a counselor at the same time. The idea is for some in the group to share their experiences with others in the group who might be experien…
Histrionic Personality
A type of personality disorder in which an individual appears to be ill in order to get his own way or to manipulate another individual.
Hypnosis
A method of treatment whereby the patient is made to become unconscious and the counselor seeks gain information by asking questions and making suggestions to the client .
Imitation
A type of behavior that is like the stimulus that caused it; the modeling of behavior.
Inferiority Complex
According to Alfred Adler, the term refers to an individual's belief that he has deficiencies in his life. The deficiencies may be real or imagined.
Intelligence Quotient
A score on an intelligence test which allows a comparison, IQ is a ratio between mental age and chronological age times 100. On most standardized IQ tests average IQ is 100.
Intelligence Test
A test that measures the ability or potential in thinking, knowledge, and other academic or mental areas; A single global score such as IQ.
Lobotomy
Treatment for abnormal behavior consisting of surgically removing or cutting out various parts of the human brain. (Type of psychosurgery)
Manic Disorders
Mood disorder characterized by elated, hyperactive state.
Medical Model
Classifying abnormal behavior like they are medical illnesses. Takes away responsibility for an individual's actions (I'm sick; I couldn't help my self; it's not my fault that I killed someone or was depressed, or robbed a bank).
Medical Student Syndrome
Innapropriate belief that you have many of the symptoms of thr disease or behaviors that you are studying or describing.
Mental Disorder
Abnormal behavior that is the result of some problem in the individual's thoughts or mental processes.
Mental Illness
An all-encompassing term used to describe the reason for all or most of the abnormal behavior found in society. Invalid or non-biblical term that offers an excuse for abnormal behavior.
Neurosis
A term sometimes used to describe a person undergoing high levels of anxiety where the cause is not easily identified. Individuals can still function in society.
Norms
Descriptive statistics taken from groups of people who have taken the same test. Used as reference.
Noxious Stimulus
Anything presented to an individual which is unwanted, undesirable, or unpleasant (i.e. electric shock, antabuse, etc.)
Obsession
An individual who thinks thoughts in a repeated, cyclical manner.
Personality Disorders
Individual fails to to act in accordance with societal standards; more an inappropriate style of life than a mental problem
Personality Test
A test that measures the way a person normally behaves, even if that normal behavior is considered to be abnormal. Very subjective and controversial even among secular psychologists.
Phobia
An irrational, fear usually in a specific area of life; may be the result of some particular situation or experience that occurred earlier in life.
Physical Addiction
The dependence upon a drug or chemical that arises through repeated uses (sometimes through a single use) of that drug or chemical.
Preconscious
According to Freud, it is the memories or thoughts which are able to be quickly recalled and remembered when needed.
Psychological Test
A sample of behavior of a person gathered in standard tests; often pencil and paper tests.
Psychometrist
A psycholigist who specializes in test writing, development, administration, and interpretation.
Psychosis
Situation on which an individual has an apparent loos of contact ~4th reality; an inability to distinguish fantasy from reality; major difficulties in day-to-day functioning.
Psychosomatic Disorder
Physical problems involving actual tissue damage or malfunction which are precipitated by mental or emotional causes such as conflicts, stress, or frustration.
Psychosurgery
Surgery on the brain performed to alleviate aggression or depression, prevent seizures and for other reasons; questionable in technique and rationale.
Punishment
A method of eliminating unwanted behavior by administering aversive or noxious stimuli after the unwanted behavior has been committed (i.e. spanking, caning).
Q-Sort Technique
Measurement technique comparing how an individual views himself as he is versus how he would like to be (ideal self).
Reliability
The feature of a test that claims it will give similar results at different times on the same subjects.
Schizophrenia
The most commonly diagnosed type of psychosis which is characterized by noticeable loss of contact with reality, delusions, hallucinations, and a tendency toward unresponsive emotional behavior.
Self
A non-Biblical theory of personality based upon the individual's desire to achieve complete realization of his potential self-actualization
Standardization
Giving a test to a large group of subjects to establish a normal curve (distribution) with curves (standards)
Syndrome
A group of symptoms that seem to be cluster together when a certain disease occurs in an individual; sometimes named for the physician who identifies the disease or disorder.
Token Economy
A system in which individuals receive tokens or "money" for acceptable or good behavior. The "money" can be exchanged for goods or services; used in some schools and nursing homes; also used in AGANA.
Tranquilizers
Specific drugs ingested in the body to reduce anxiety or in some way relax the individual (i.e. Valium, Librium, Xanax)
Transactional Analysis
A model of psychology which uses three roles to explain behavior in an individual (child, parent, adult). Some say it is the Freudian model presented in another fashion.
Transference
Theoretical concept in which the client transfers feelings to the counselor that are linked to other relationships.
Unconscious
According to Freud, the memories and/or unacceptable thoughts not easily remembered by the individual.
Validity
The feature of a test that says it is measuring what claims to be measuring.
Weschler Tests
Type of intelligence tests for measuring IQ in children (Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children: Revised WISC-R; Weschler Adult Scale: R WAIS-R)