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Level 24

One Dimensional Motion


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mechanics
branch of applied mathematics dealing with motion and the forces producing motion
kinematics
branch of mechanics that explains the "what" and "how" of motion
Speed
Units: cm/s, m/s, mi/hr, km/s ...
Velocity
a speed in a particular direction.
scalar
a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction
vector
a displacement distinguished by magnitude and direction but not by location.
acceleration
(physics) a rate of change of velocity
Instantaneous Speed
Magnitude of instantaneous velocity
Average Speed
Distance traveled divided by the time required to cover the distance
m/s
A car enters the freeway with a speed of 6.4 m/s and accelerates uniformly for 3.2 km in 3.5 minutes. How fast (in m/s) is the car moving after this time? (units)
m
A car starts from rest and travels for 5.0 s with a constant acceleration of -1.5 m/s^2. How far does the car travel in this time interval? (units)
m/s/s
unit for acceleration
∆v = ∆x/∆t
Velocity, displacement, and time
a = ∆v/∆t
Acceleration, velocity, and time
v = v₀+a∗t
Velocity, initial velocity, acceleration, and time
v² = v₀²+2a∗∆x
Velocity, initial velocity, acceleration, and displacement
∆x = v₀∗t+½∗a∗t²
Displacement, initial velocity, time, and acceleration
relative velocity
How fast one body is moving in relation to another body; vb-a (velocity of b relative to a) = vb- va
The displacement (∆x)
On a velocity vs time graph, what does the area under the graph equal to?
What is acceleration?
The rate of change in velocity.
Average acceleration
a = ∆v/∆t
final velocity
The velocity after acceleration has occurred is the _______
Displacement formula (x or ∆x)
x = Vit + (1/2)at^2
Average velocity (uniform acceleration)
v = (Vi + Vf)/2
9.8 m/(s^2)
Acceleration of gravity
y = -(gt^2)/2
Displacement with gravity (affects the -y direction)
a parabola
what does the center of mass follow when in projectile motion
force
(interactions between two objects)
system
A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions.
Free-body diagram
A diagram showing all the the forces acting on an object.
Contact force
A force that "touches" or comes in contact with the system
Field Force
A force exerted on an object without touching it
net force
Acceleration depends on the
Newton's second law
Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass, the greater the mass, the more force is required to accelerate the object.
Newton's first law
An object at rest remain and an object in motion remains in motion UNLESS it experiences an unbalanced force. Also called the Law of Inertia.
equilibrium
1)starting point of SHM, object is in _______, fnet equals zero
weight
A force that comes from gravity pulling down on any object with mass
mass
a body of coherent matter, usually of indefinite shape and often of considerable size
volume
the amount of space that matter takes up
Gravitational field
a force field that exists in the space around every mass or group of masses
inertia
_______ is the property of an object that leads it to resist any change in motion
apparent weight
the force exerted on a scale by an object and other forces acting upon the object is the _______.
Weightlessness
a condition encountered in free-fall wherein a support force is lacking
drag force
a force exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid is a(n) _______.
Fluid
A gas or a liquid
Terminal Velocity
Greatest velocity an object can reach is called _______.
Interaction Pairs
A set of two forces that are in opposite directions, have equal magnitudes, and act on different objects.
Newton's Third Law
All forces come in pairs. The two forces in a pair act on different objects and are equal in strength and opposite in direction.
tension
a force exerted by any segment of a rope or string on an adjoining segment is _______.
normal force
a perpendicular contact force exerted by a surface on another object is a(n) _______.
balanced forces
forces that are equal in size but opposite in direction
unbalanced forces
forces that cause a change in the motion of an object
2
A car traveling at 7.0 m/s accelerates uniformly at 2.5 m/s^2 to reach a speed of 12.0 m/s. How long does it take this acceleration to occur? (Answer)
seconds
A car traveling at 7.0 m/s accelerates uniformly at 2.5 m/s^2 to reach a speed of 12.0 m/s. How long does it take this acceleration to occur? (units)
24
A car enters the freeway with a speed of 6.4 m/s and accelerates uniformly for 3.2 km in 3.5 minutes. How fast (in m/s) is the car moving after this time? (answer)
-19
A car starts from rest and travels for 5.0 s with a constant acceleration of -1.5 m/s^2. How far does the car travel in this time interval? (answer)
2.3
An aircraft has a liftoff speed of 33 m/s. What minimum constant acceleration does this require if the aircraft is to be airborne after a take-off run of 240 m? (answer)
m/s^2
An aircraft has a liftoff speed of 33 m/s. What minimum constant acceleration does this require if the aircraft is to be airborne after a take-off run of 240 m? (units)
displacement
A change in position (delta p).
position vs time graph
A graph of position as the dependent variable (y axis) vs time as the independent variable (x axis) that is used to depict and analyze the motion of an object.
slope on distance vs time graph
Slope = velocity for a position-time graph. It is often said, "As the slope goes, so goes the velocity." Whatever characteristics the velocity has, the slope will exhibit the same (and vice versa). If…
regression analysis
A statistical method of determining the precision of your data The value determined is the correlation coefficient, R2. The closer its value is to 1.000, the better the internal consistency within your data.
uniform motion
constant velocity with no change in direction
curve fit
The process of constructing a curve, or mathematical function, that has the best fit to a series of data points,[
Distance
a path taken and always a positive number
Constant Acceleration
The acceleration of an object is proportional to force (F = ma) - thus, if there is a constant force applied onto an object, the object will accelerate at a constant rate.
Rule of Thumb Acceleration
If an object is slowing down, then its acceleration is in the opposite direction of its motion.
slope on velocity vs time graph
The slope of the line on a velocity-time graph reveals useful information about the acceleration of the object. If the acceleration is zero, then the slope is zero (i.e., a horizontal line). If the accelera…
velocity vs time graph
A graph of velocity as the dependent variable (y axis) vs time as the independent variable (x axis) that is used to depict and analyze the motion of an object.
motion
An object is moving if its position relative to a fixed point is changing.
Position
Is the distance and direction away from a reference point
rise/run
slope on a graph
motion detector
A device used to collect position, velocity, and acceleration data of moving objects.
Displacement/time
average velocity
Instantaneous Velocity
How fast an object is moving and direction of motion at each instant in time
acceleration-time graphs
A graph of acceleration as the dependent variable (y axis) vs time as the independent variable (x axis) that is used to depict and analyze the motion of an object.