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Level 188

Light, Mirrors & Lenses


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law of reflection
a scientific law stating that when light reflects off a surface, the angle of incidence always equals the angle of reflection; refers to the predictable behaviour of reflected light
Diffuse reflection
if a surface is rough, the reflected light is sent out in a variety of directions
concave mirror
..., a mirror with a surface that curves inward
What concave mirrors do?
They can produce either a Virtual image ( upright and reversed) before the focal point , or a Real Image (inverted) after the focal point. Images produced a this mirror can also be enlarge or magnified.
convex mirror
..., a mirror with a surface that curves outward
Primary Colors of light
Red, green , and blue ( PL)
Secondary colors of light
yellow, magenta, and cryan (SL)
Primary colors of pigment
yellow, magneta and cryan (PP)
Secondary colors of pigment
Red, Green, and Blue (SP)
Pigments
are chemicals that reflect certain colors and absorb others. The more pigments that get added together , the more absorption takes place and the color reflected becomes darker.
opaque
impossible to see through; preventing the passage of light
Transparent
All light passes through; can see through clearly eg. glass
translucent
a type of material that scatters light as it passes through it
focal point
..., the point at which light rays parallel to the optical axis meet when reflected or refracted
Focal Length
Sign Conventions for Lenses
plane mirror
..., A flat mirror that produces an upright, virtual image the same size as the object
Lenses
bends light to focus
convex lens
..., a lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges
concave lens
..., a lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges
0
ConVECTion is heat by particles
Magnification
the ratio of the size of an image to the size of the object, the negative image distance divided by object distance
Convergent Lens
a lens that bends light waves inward or together, it is thicker in the middle
Divergent Lens
a lens that bends light waves outward or away, it is thinner in the middle
Focal Ray Convergent
ray that passes the focal point and is refracted parallel
Parallel Ray Convergent
ray that is incident along a path parallel to the axis and is refracted through the focal point
Chief Ray Convergent
ray that is incident through the center of the lens and is refracted undeviated
spherical mirror equation OR thin lens equation
inverse of the object distance plus the the inverse of the image distance is equal to the inverse of the focal length
Properties of Convex Lens
always a virtual image, di is negative
Image is real, inverted, and reduced
Concave Mirror with Object Distance greater than twice focal length
Image is real, inverted, magnified
Concave Mirror with Object Distance between twice focal length and focal length
Image is virtual, upright, magnified
Concave Mirror with Object Distance less than the focal length
Convex Mirror Image
Virtual, upright, reduced
if the light rays are close to the mirror, so are the reflected light rays
How is distance of reflected rays compared with the incoming light rays when striking a flat mirror?
virtual and upright with 1x magnification
What type of image is produced by a flat mirror?
Concave
A mirror whose rays will be reflected and converge to a focus
light spread out more
What happens to light as it moves farther away form a light source?
specular
if parallel incident light rays reflect as parallel reflected waves, then reflection is
towards the normal
Light passing at an angle to the normal at low speed bends...
M=h'/h
magnification
What is an example of refraction?
broken pencil in a glass of water
Define refraction
bending of light as it passes through two different media
When is light not refracted?
when it cannot pass through an object
either real or virtual
What type of image is produces from a converging lens?
critical angle
Sin theta= n2/n1
What forms rainbows?
equal refraction of all wavelengths
find out!!!!
What are paraxial rays?
thin lens equaiton
1/f = 1/do + 1/di
Snell's Law
ni sine theta = nr sine theta
toward the normal
How are waves bent with a higher index of refraction?
light
light is energy and the phenomenon of color is a product of the interaction of energy and matter.
real image
`, an image of an object formed by light rays that actually come together at a specific location
virtual image
a reflected optical image; see "inverted image"
converge
come together
diverge
spread out
laser
A device that produces a narrow beam of coherent light.
coherent
the waves are lined up so all crests and troughs occur at the same time.
internal reflection
light rays are reflected back into the material at the boundary when they hit the edge at a certain angle.
fiber optics
light beams are carried through thin glass fibers by internal reflection
plane
flat shape, allows reflection directly back
lens
...a curved piece of glass or other transparent material that refracts light.
nearsighted eye
objects that are near are clear. Corrective lens = concave lens
farsighted eye
objects that are far are seen clear. Corrective lens = convex lens
ray
..., a straight line extending from a point, used to show how light reflects
image
..., a copy of an object formed by reflected or refracted rays of light