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Level 183

Light as a Wave & a Particle


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electromagnetic radiation
energy that can travel through empty space in the form of waves
Wavelength
distance between two consecutive crests which are in phase with one another
Frequency
#cycles/second
Speed
Units: cm/s, m/s, mi/hr, km/s ...
amplitude
maximum displacement from equilibrium
photon
a tiny particle or packet of light energy
Photoelectric effect
Einstein used the results of the photoelectric effect to conclude that a quantum of light acts like a particle- he called them photons.
Atomic Emission Spectra
a set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors
Quantized
Restricted to certain quantities - the opposite of continuous; goes from one level to the next with nothing in between (e.g., the energy levels in which an atom's electrons exist.)
Continuous
Relating to a line or curve that extends without a break or irregularity
Discrete
Apart or detached from others; separate; distinct
Atomic absorption spectrum
a procedure for the quantitate determination at chemical elements using the absorption of areal radiation by free atoms in gaseous state.
Fluorescence
Immediate emission of visible light as a result of the absorption of ultraviolet light
Phosphorescence
Producing light by the absorption of ultraviolet light resulting in the emission of visible light over an extended period of time
Chemiluminescence
(in chemical reactions) the emission of light by an atom or molecule that is in an excited state.
bioluminescence
a plant or animal being able to produce light
Triboluminescence
luminescence produced by friction, usually within a crystalline substance.
Principal Quantum Number(n)
distance the electron is from the nucleus, energy level.
Orbital Quantum Number(l)
describes the shape of the orbital, sublevel
Magnetic Quantum Number(m1)
describes which orbital with in the sublevel, orbital
Spin Quantum Number (ms)
describes the "spin" of the electron
Aufbau Principal
Electrons fill from lowest to highest energy orbitals
Hunds rule
Electrons will spread out in a sublevel before pairing up
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins
Orbital Notation
A system of describing the energy of every electron in an atom precisely
E=hv
Equation to calculate the amount of energy in a photon
speed of light
186,000 miles a second or 700 million miles an hour.
Frequency (v)
number of cycles that passes a Point in one second.
Speed (c)
Distance traveled per unit of time
Amplitude (A)
distance origin to peak or origin to trough
Wave Equation
Wavelength x V (frequency) = C (speed of light)
Inversely Related
Frequency and Wavelength are...
Meters (m) - Nanometers (nm)
10^6 Hz = 1 MHz
Interference between light waves is produced when...
Light diffracts as it passes through narrow slits
Constructive interference
Bright bands are
Destructive interference
Dark bands are
Between 0.0004mm and 0.0006mm
The wavelength of light is...
The slits have to be very narrow.
As the wavelength of light is between 0.0004mm and 0.0006mm,
Light is a wave.
Interference of light can only be explained if
light
in the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS)- narrow band of frequencies that we can see
Transverse waves
Electromagnetic waves are
oscillation
any repeating motion
Oscillations occur in an electromagnetic (transverse) wave in...
All directions at right angles to the wave direction
Polarised (light)
Light in which the oscillations are confined to one plane only.
Light is polarised if
The oscillations are only in one direction at right angles to the wave direction.
Polaroid
A material that absorbs light except that polarised in one particular planes, producing polarised light.
Polaroid sunglasses
Stop oscillations in all but one direction at right angles to the wave. This reduces the amount of light passing through.
Newton
(kg*m)/(s*s)
Hugens
Thought of light as a wave. - light should travel slower in a denser medium
Newton was proved wrong.
When the speed of light was finally measured...