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Level 181

Light


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Luminous
Emits own light eg: light globe, sun
Non-luminous
Does not emit own light eg. moon, person
straight line
An object undergoing constant acceleration has a_velocity graph
reflect
to bounce off an object, such as when a light wave strikes an object
Transparent
All light passes through; can see through clearly eg. glass
translucent
a type of material that scatters light as it passes through it
opaque
impossible to see through; preventing the passage of light
reflection
a wave strikes a boundary and bounces back
Regular
Type of reflection when light bounces off a smooth surface; produces a clear image
diffuse
reflection off of rough surfaces
Normal
A line drawn at right angles to the reflecting surface at the point where the incidence ray hits; All angles are measured from here
Incidence
Which angle is this?
equal
Non-polar covalent bond has an _______ sharing of electrons
image
..., a copy of an object formed by reflected or refracted rays of light
Magnified
If an image appears bigger than the object
Diminished
If an image appears smaller than the object
Distorted
When an image appears altered in shape
Laterally inverted
When an image appears the wrong way round
upright
For mirrors, when is M positive?
inverted
For mirrors, when is M negative?
Real
When an image can be projected onto a screen
virtual
What kind of image does a plane mirror produce?
Convex
A mirror whose rays will be reflected and diverge away from each other
Concave
A mirror whose rays will be reflected and converge to a focus
refraction
a wave is bent due to a change in speed
Towards
When light enters a more dense material it bends AWAY/TOWARDS the normal
away
2.rule of refraction continued
White
what color spore print does a shitake mushroom have
Reflects
An object appears a colour because it ASBORBS/REFLECTS that colour light
Red
An object is seen as red when it reflects this colour
ROYGBIV
The first letters of the colours which make up the light spectrum
Black
An object will appear this colour if it absorbs all colours of light
Magenta
Tthis secondary colour is produced by mixing red and blue light
Cyan
This secondary colour is produced by mixing green and blue light
iris
muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil
Contracts
In a dark room the iris CONTRACTS/RELAXES to let as much light in as possible
Cornea
Clear, transparent surface where most of the bending (refraction) occurs.
lens
...a curved piece of glass or other transparent material that refracts light.
Pupil
A hole in the iris through which light passes
Aqueous humour
Clear, watery liquid behind the cornea
Ciliary muscle
Adjusts the shape of the lens, depending on how far away the object we are trying to focus on is.
Vitreous humour
Jelly like substance filling the back part of the eye
retina
innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
Rods
Light receptor cells that detect the brightness of light
Cones
Light receptor cells that detect colour
Optic nerve
Sends signals to your brain from the retina
blind spot
Jump causes a _______ around the segment line
Biconcave
Concave on both sides
Biconvex
Convex on both sides
Diffusion Device
Object that softens or lessens the intensity of a light
Diffusion Gel
Opaque sheet of plastic used to diffuse light
Colored Gel
Changes the color of light without changing the color temperature
Dimmer
Switch used to raise or lower the intensity of light
Umbrella
Collapsible reflective object commonly used on photography shoots to diffuse light
Scrim
Metallic wire mesh placed over a lamp to diffuse light
Reflector
Shiny, metallic, mirror-like accessory that reflects light onto a subject
Bounce Card
Collapsible white panel used to reflect light on a subject; can be a poster or wall
Flag
Metal flap that mounts to the side of a lighting instrument to shape light
Lamp
Bulb
Lighting Instrument
Metal housing for a lamp
Barn Doors
Accessory with metal flaps, used to shape light
3-Point Lighting
Lighting set-up ideal for one subject
4-Point Lighting
2 diffused hard lights, 2 soft lights
Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight
Also known as the Profile Spot; type of hard light used in filmmaking
Key Light
Brightest source of illumination
Flood Light
Wide, large light used for soft lighting
Fresnel
Hard light that has a screw attachment for barn doors
Fill Light
Placed opposite of the Key Light
Scoop
Soft light that requires a heavy light stand because of its size and weight
Soft Box
Specific type of scoop or flood light, used to create soft lighting
Back Light
Creates a halo effect on the subject
Spot Light
Small, focused light used for hard lighting; creates a directional beam
Tota
Small, rectangular light that creates hard light and has a clip for a flag attachment
Cross Key Lighting
2 hard lights, 2 soft lights
Hard Light
Casts distinct shadows
Soft Light
Casts indistinct shadows
White Balance
Changing the color temperature to reflect 3200K
High Key
Used in "comedy" movies
Black Balance
Changing the color temperature to reflect 10000K
Low Key
Used in "film noir" movies
Light Quality
Size of a light source and the distance between the light source and the subject
Kelvin Color Temperature Scale
Measurement of the various shades of light
transparent material
A material that transmits light without scattering it.
translucent material
A material that scatters light as it passes through.
opaque material
A material that reflects or absorbs all of the light that strikes it.
primary colors
Pure or fundamental colors (red, yellow, and blue) that cannot be created by combining other colors.
complementary colors
Any two colors that combine to form white light or black pigment.
pigment
A colored substance used to color other materials.
ray
..., a straight line extending from a point, used to show how light reflects
regular reflection
..., Reflection that occurs when parallel rays of light hit a smooth surface and all reflect at the same angle
Diffuse reflection
if a surface is rough, the reflected light is sent out in a variety of directions
plane mirror
..., A flat mirror that produces an upright, virtual image the same size as the object
virtual image
a reflected optical image; see "inverted image"
concave mirror
..., a mirror with a surface that curves inward
optical axis
..., an imaginary line that divides a mirror in half
focal point
..., the point at which light rays parallel to the optical axis meet when reflected or refracted
real image
`, an image of an object formed by light rays that actually come together at a specific location
convex mirror
..., a mirror with a surface that curves outward
index of refraction
..., a measure of the amount a ray of light bends when it passes from one medium to another
mirage
An image of a distant object caused by refraction of light as it travels through air of varying temperature.
convex lens
..., a lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges
concave lens
..., a lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges
nearsighted
A condition that causes a person to see distant object as blurry.
farsighted
A condition that causes a person to see nearby objects as blurry.
telescope
An optical instrument for making distant objects appear larger and therefore nearer.
Refracting Telescope
A telescope that uses a converging lens to collect light
objective
A lens that gathers light from an object and forms a real image.
eyepiece
A lens that magnifies the image formed by the objective.
Reflecting Telescope
A telescope constructed of a larger objective mirror called a primary
microscope
An optical instrument that forms enlarged images of tiny objects.
camera
An optical instrument that uses lenses to focus light, and film to record and image of an object.
laser
A device that produces a narrow beam of coherent light.
hologram
A three-dimensional photograph created using lasers.
optical fiber
A long, thin strand of glass or plastic that can carry light for long distances without allowing the light to escape.
Total Internal Reflection
Sin(critical angle)= n2/n1