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Level 177

Optics


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the Law of Reflection
the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
spectral
reflection off of smooth surfaces
diffuse
reflection off of rough surfaces
refraction
a wave is bent due to a change in speed
index of refraction
..., a measure of the amount a ray of light bends when it passes from one medium to another
prism
a piece of glass that separates white light into ROY G BIV
visible spectrum
the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen. visible ligth makes up only 35 percent of natural sunlight
primary colors
Pure or fundamental colors (red, yellow, and blue) that cannot be created by combining other colors.
secondary colors
Colors obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors, Green, Orange, Violet
additive colors
primary colors of light are this
subtractive colors
secondary colors of light are this
color absorption
the absorbing of colors
color reflection
the reflecting of colors
human color sensitivity
in the retina, cones can sense color, unlike rods
Pupil
A hole in the iris through which light passes
iris
muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil
Cornea
Clear, transparent surface where most of the bending (refraction) occurs.
lens
...a curved piece of glass or other transparent material that refracts light.
sclera
the white of the eye
retina
innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
Optic nerve
Sends signals to your brain from the retina
Wavelength
distance between two consecutive crests which are in phase with one another
Frequency
#cycles/second
nomenclature of the EM spectrum
electromagnetic spectrum; visible light, infared light, etc.
Doppler shift
change in apparent frequency
bright line spectra
high to low energy
absorption spectra
the electromagnetic spectrum
deviation
planets pull each other
dispersion
What causes red light to leave at a lower angle?
Convex
A mirror whose rays will be reflected and diverge away from each other
Concave
A mirror whose rays will be reflected and converge to a focus
ray tracing
the tracing of a ray
Focal Length
Sign Conventions for Lenses
focal point
..., the point at which light rays parallel to the optical axis meet when reflected or refracted
real image
`, an image of an object formed by light rays that actually come together at a specific location
virtual image
a reflected optical image; see "inverted image"
erect image
image with same orientation as object; see "real image"
inverted image
For lenses, when is M negative?
reflection
a wave strikes a boundary and bounces back
Lenses
bends light to focus
Rays
Narrow beams of light
Beams
Stream of Light Rays
Transparent
All light passes through; can see through clearly eg. glass
translucent
a type of material that scatters light as it passes through it
opaque
impossible to see through; preventing the passage of light
Normal
A line drawn at right angles to the reflecting surface at the point where the incidence ray hits; All angles are measured from here
Total Internal Reflection
Sin(critical angle)= n2/n1
Ray Box
Instrument to create rays of light in experiments
Biconcave
Concave on both sides
Biconvex
Convex on both sides