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Level 172

Electric Charge & Static Electricity


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Electric Charge
a property that leads to electromagnetic interations between the particles that make up matter.
Static Electricity
the buildup of electric charge on an object. When something is static, it is not moving.
By friction
Charge which occurs when two objects are rubbed together, causing a transfer of electrons between the objects.
By induction
A way of rearranging the charges within an object without touching it.
By Contact
If a charged object and an uncharged object touch each other, the charged object can transfer some of its charge to the area it touches.
electrical conductor
a material in which charges can move easily
electrical insulator
a material in which charges cannot move easily
Semiconductors
a special class of material that conduct electric charge better than electrical insulators but not as well as electrical conductors.
electric current
charge per unit of time
voltage
the potential difference between two points in a circuit
electric circuit
a complete closed path through which electric charges can flow
series circuit
a circuit in which all parts are connected in a single loop
parallel circuit
a circuit in which loads are connected side by side
magnet
a body that can attract certain substances, such as iron or steel, as a result of a magnetic field
magnetic force
a the force of a magnet
magnetic poles
two magnets pushing each other apart because of their magnetic poles
magnetic field
a vector force field that surrounds any magnetic material
ferromagnet
a material that can be turned into a magnet
electromagnet
a large number of closely spaced turns of wire that create the magnetic field when hooked up to a battery
electromagnetism
a relationship between electricity and magnetism. results when electric currents and magnetic fields interact with each other.
Solenoid
A coil of insulated wire, usually wrapped around an iron core.
electric motor
changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.
electromagnetic induction
a voltage is induced in the wire
transformer
an important device that relies on electromagnetic induction
electric generators
use induction to change mechanical energy into electrical energy. opposite of electric motors