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Level 159

Heat Engine & Power Plant


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Isothermal heat addition
Heat comes in, Turbine
Isentropic Expansion
Piston goes down with open space, Turbine
Isothermal heat rejection
Heat comes out, Compression
Isentropic compression
Piston goes up with small space, Compression
Carrot Cycle
Automobile heat engine ideal
stroke
height area of cylinder
bore
width area of cylinder
Otto Cycle: Actual, 4-stroke, spark-ignition
Intake Stroke --piston goes down as gas come in
Mean Effective Pressure (MEP)
As piston goes up, MEP goes up because high pressure from compressed gas in small area. As piston goes down, MEP goes down because low pressure from expanded gas in big area.
Displacement Volume
Volume area in cylinder when piston is down.
Clearance Volume
Volume area in cylinder when piston is up.
Rankine Cycle
Vaper-powered cycle. Water is heated in boiler, goes to turbine and makes kinetic energy, goes to condenser/process heater which converts to water, pump takes water to boiler.
Cogeneration
Production of more than one useful form of energy from some energy source.
Process heat
energy input in form of heat; supplied by steam; energy transferred to steam by burning coal, oil, natural gas, or another furnace fuel.
Cogeneration Plant
A plant that reduces electricity while meeting process-heat requirements.
as high as 80%
What is actual utilization factor of Cogeneration Plant?
Combined Gas-Vapor Power Cycle
Involves a gas power cycle topping a vapor power cycle.
What is the greatest interest?
Gas-turbine (Brayton) cycle topping a steam-turbine (Rankine) cycle which has highest efficiency together than separate.
What is Combined gas-steam cycle
Gas-turbine cycle at top and steam power cycle at bottom.
over 50%
What is the thermal efficiency of Combined cycle?
Diathermal Wall
allows heat to pass through
Adiabatic Wall
A thermally isolating wall. In a closed adiabatic system, ∆U = w.
0th Law
2 objects with different To, end with same Tf
1st Law
An object at rest stays at rest, an object in motion stays in motion, UNLESS an UNBALANCED force acts upon it.
2nd Law
Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass
3rd Law
Every action has and opposite re-action
Isobaric
constant pressure
Isochoric
Constant temperature change
Isothermic
constant temperature
Adiabatic
different temperature
Reversible Process
A process that can be reversed by an infinitely small change in a variable (an infinitesimal change).
Carnot's Principle
no irreversible engine operating between 2 res at constant temp can have great 'e' than a reversible engine operating between those same temps
Fridge/AC
uses work (power chord) to make item go from cold to hot
Heat Pump
A machine that uses work to drive heat flow