Level 156
Level 158

#### 104 words 0 ignored

Ready to learn
Ready to review

## Ignore words

Check the boxes below to ignore/unignore words, then click save at the bottom. Ignored words will never appear in any learning session.

**Ignore?**

Graphs, volume versus pressure

volume versus pressure is 1/2 parabola

Avagadro

the volume varies directly with n (# of molecules) when T and P are constant.

Gay-Lussac

Fixed volume and moles are proportional to kelvin temp, P1/T1 = P2/T2

STP conditions

.08206 r

high temps, low pressures

When do gasses express ideal behavior?

Graham's Law of Effusion

velocity is inversely proportional to square root of its molar mass

volume vs moles

straight line positive slope?

half parabola

volume versus pressure

ratio of velocity

For example HCL & NH3

Volume versus Kelvin

straight line positive slop through origin

volume vs. number of moles

straight line vs positive slope through origin

Two state problem

Pin Vin/Pfin Vfin = Nin R Tin/Nfin R Tfin

q + w

equation of internal energy

Work=

P^v or nRT

^H=^E+PV

Change in Enthalpy

Energy

(physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work

Open System

A system in which both energy and matter can enter or exit

Closed System

A system containing a fixed amount of matter; it can still exchange energy with the surroundings.

Isolated System

A system that has are no energy transfers between that system and its surroundings.

heat absorbed/^T

heat capacity

1 cal

4.184 J

Elements in their standard state= 0

C(graphite), OV2(g), HV2(g), NV2(g), FV2(g), ClV2(g), BrV2(g), IV2(s), all metals(s), Hg(L)

F/A

Pressure

1kg/m*s^2=1N/m^2

1 Pa

Barometer

An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

Manometer

Measures the height difference between gas and atmosphere

PV=K

Boyes law

V/T=k

Charles law

P/T=k

Gay-lussac's law

V/n=k

Avogardro's law

-P^v or nRT

Work

Specific Heat

Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of material 1 degree Celsius.

Molar heat capacity

heat absorbed/ mol substance X ^T

4.184 J

1 cal

PV= mRT/MM

Find molar mass

MM=DRT/P

Find Density

P

Pressure (760 mmHG,101.3kPa or 1 atm)

v

The index of refraction n is defined as , where c is the speed of light in air, and _______ is the speed of light in a material.

n

Nitrogen

R

(0.0821 atm) or (8.314kpa)

T

1/f

Avagadros

1 mol = 22.4 L

Ideal Gas law

the equation that expresses exactly how pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and the number of particles (n) of a gas are related

Molar volume

the volume of 1 mole of an ideal gas; equal to 22.42 liters at standard temperature and pressure

Gay lussac's law

the law that states that the pressure of a gas at a constant volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature

Combined gas law

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

Grahams law of effusion

Rate1/Rate2= sr of MM2/sr of MM1

pressure

_______ is the measure of force exerted on a unit area of surface

Daltons law of partial pressure

Partial pressure is pressure of each gas in a mixture. Dalton's law of partial pressures is the total pressure of a gas mixture in the sum of the partial pressure of the component gas

Charles law

Volume and Temp.; V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂

density is equivalent to...

M / V, MM / R to P / T (ratio)

Kinetic Energy equation

K.E. = 1/2(MM)u^2

Constant

horizontal motion is _______

Collisions are elastic/sticky

elastic (molecules do not stick to each other or the walls)

mu^2

measure of the energy of collision

What is gas pressure caused by?

collisions of molecules with the walls of the container- pressure increases with the energy and frequency of these collisions

u

average speed of a molecule

u^2

average of the squares of the speeds of all molecules

N/V or N:V

What ratio expresses the concentration of gas molecules in a container?

the greater collision frequency, the higher pressure

The more molecules in a volume, the greater/lower collision frequency, the higher/lower pressure

Nmu^2 / 3V

Pressure equals (variables N m u^2 V)

3RT / 2N(a)

Average Transitional Kinetic Energy

Average speed, u

(3RT / MM) ^1/2

(MMA / MMB) ^1/2

UB / UA = (at constant pressure and temperature; if speed is not a concern)

Gaseous diffusion

gas molecules move through space from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration (slow and complex process)

Gaseous effusion

the flow of gas molecules at low pressures through tiny pores or pinholes (simpler process0

Pressure unit

force per unit area

1 atm pressure = psi = kPa = mm Hg = Torr = bar

1 atm pressure = 14.696 psi = 101.325 kPa = 760 mm Hg = 760 Torr = 1.01325 bar

Psi stands for

pounds of force per square inch of wall

Mercury Barometer

what we use to measure atmospheric pressure. Invented by Evangelista Torricelli. At sea level it varies

Pascal (Pa) or Bar*

In the international system, the standard unit of pressure is

Newton

(kg*m)/(s*s)

75 pounds of pressure

1 sq. inch holds how much pressure?

What is atmospheric pressure?

Atmospheric pressure is actually gravitational pull, and the gravitational pull gets less as we move farther away from the Earth

We are hollow

why do we not feel the pressure weighing on us?

Ideal Gases

Imaginary Gases that perfectly fit all of the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory

Real Gas

doesn't follow every KMT rule

More polar gases

Conditions that make gases act like real gases

SI unit of pressure

newton/meter^2 = 1 pascal

1 atmosphere

101,325 Pascals (Pa)

Conversion factor from atm to torr

1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mmHg = 101.325 KPa

Barometer

First device used for measuring atmospheric pressure

Evangelista Torricelli, 17th century

Created the barometer, and in what century

Charles's Law

V1/T1 = V2/T2

Avogadro's law

Equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.

Standard Molar Volume states that

Equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.

M = dRT/P

Equation for molar mass of a gas

Gas Density Units

molar mass / volume

Density at STP

22.4 g/ Liter

Formula for density

D = MP/RT

Law of Partial Pressures

For a mixture of gases in a container,

How to use law of partial pressures

Two gases in a container. Use ideal gas laws to find pressure of each individually. add those together to get total pressure.

Kinetic Molecular theory

states that submicrocopic particles of all matter are in constant, random motion

KE 1/2 mv^2

Formula for kinetic energy of gas

KE = 3/2 RT

formula for average kinetic temperature

Diffusion

The mobility of a gas through another substance. Particles will diffuse faster if they are light weight, if they are gaseous, temperature increases.

Rate of diffusion

rate of different gases mixing

Effusion

process of a gas leaking out a small opening. same prop as diffusion

rate = (M)^(-1/2)

Grahams law for rates of effusion and diffusion

Absolute Zero

0 Kelvin, no movement of particles

8.312 L kPa/ mol K

Proportionality constants for Ideal gas law Kilopascals

atm

0.08206 L atm/ mol kPa

8.3145 J/mol K

Joules (use this in KE formulas)

Mole Fraction

Xa=mol A/total mol