Level 151 Level 153
Level 152

Thermal Energy


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temperature
Measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample
thermal energy
a hot coffee mug
heat
energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures
Heat Transfer
The movement of thermal energy from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower temperature.
Specific Heat
Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of material 1 degree Celsius.
Coolant
A substance that can absorb a great amount of thermal energy without a large change in temperature.
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat or sound from one substance to another substance that it is touching
convection
the process whereby heat is transferred by the mass movement of molecules from one place to the other
Radiation
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
thermal conductor
a material through which energy can be transferred as heat
thermal insulator
a material that reduces or prevents the transfer of heat
Solar Collector
Device used in an active solar heating system that transforms radiant energy from the Sun into thermal energy.
Thermodynamics
physics that is concerned with energy, transfers and work.
Isolated System
A system that has are no energy transfers between that system and its surroundings.
Non-isolated System
A system in which energy is transferred between the system and its surroundings.
first law of thermodynamics
the energy of the universe is constant
Second Law of Thermodynamics
states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases
Heat Engine
a machine that transform heat into mechanical power: steam heating.
Internal combustion engine
a heat engine in which the fuel burns inside the engine
stroke
height area of cylinder
External combustion engine
An engine powered by fuel burned outside the engine.
Efficiency of Heat Engines
Depends on the difference in the temperature of the burning gases in the cylinder and the temperature of the air outside the engine.
Refrigerator
A device that does work as it transfers thermal energy from inside the cooler interior to the warmer surroundings of the outside room.
Air Conditioner
A device that transfers thermal energy from warm air as it is forced to travel over tubes containing a coolant, which absorbs some of the thermal energy.
Heat Pump
A machine that uses work to drive heat flow