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Level 148

Laws of Thermodynamics & Changes in Matter


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Laws of thermodynamics
_______ describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.
temperature
property of matter or the factor that determines the direction of heat flow
Boltzmann Distribution
Plots the number of particles versus the kinetic energy of the particle.
heat
The transfer of energy between objects that are at different temperatures.
Higher, lower
Heat will transfer from an object with _______ temperature to an object with _______ temperature.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
States that energy spontaneously spreads from regions of higher concentrations to regions of lower concentration.
state functions
(energy, pressure, volume, temperature)
Standard state conditions
Gases at 1 atm, all liquids pure, all solids pure, all solutions 1 M, energy of formation in its normal state is zero, temperature almost alway 25 C.
Negative
In an exothermic reaction, the change in enthalpy is _______. The energy of the reactants is greater than the products.
Positive
In an endothermic reaction, the change in enthalpy is _______. The energy of the products is greater than the reactants.
ΔH
ΣΔΗ°products - ΣΔΗ°reactants=
Bond energy
the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
Reactant
Bonds broken are the _______ bonds.
Product
Bonds formed are the _______ bonds.
Temperature, pressure
Phase changes occur because of changes in _______ and/or _______
Increases
As temperature increases, the vapor pressure of a liquid _______.
Boils
When the vapor pressure of a liquid becomes equal to the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere, the liquid _______.
More stable, lower
The intermolecular forces within a solid are _______ and have _______ energy than the forces within a liquid. Energy is released in the freezing process.
Stronger, released
Intermolecular forces become _______ when a gas condenses, and energy is _______.
Upward
In the phase diagram for substances other than water, the solid-liquid equilibrium line slopes _______. When pressure is increased, it changes from liquid to solid.
Downward
In the phase diagram for water, the solid-liquid equilibrium line slopes _______. When pressure is increased, water changes from solid to liquid.
Lattice structure
Water's hydrogen bonds form a _______ when it freezes, forcing the molecules to remain farther apart in ice than in water.
Less dense
The solid phase of water is _______ than the liquid phase, causing ice to float on water and accounts for the preservation of marine life.
Hess's Law
If a reaction can be described as a series of steps, then ΔΗ for the overall reaction is the sum of the ΔΗ values for all of the steps.
Heat capacity
A measure of how much the temperature of an object is raised when it absorbs heat. C=ΔΗ/ΔΤ
Large
An object with a _______ heat capacity can absorb a lot of heat without undergoing much of a change in temperature.
Small
A force with a big mass has a _______ acceleration
Specific Heat
Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of material 1 degree Celsius.
Entropy
The measure of a system's thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work.
greater
Accommodative response for myope is _______ in CL compared to equivalent spectacle correction
ΔS
Enthalpy change
Zero entropy
Defined as as solid crystal at 0 K. All substances will have some positive value for entropy.
Higher
Spectacle Rx is _______ than CL Rx for myopes
Gibbs free energy
δW_nonmechanical ≤ -dA - pdV ≤ -d(A + pV) ≤ -dG
Spontaneous
In an voltaic cell, is the redox reaction spontaneous or nonspontaneous?
Not spontaneous
If ΔG is positive, the reaction is _______ .
At equilibrium
If ΔG is zero, the reaction is _______.
ΔG
ΣΔG°products - ΣΔG°reactants=
Low, high
In general, nature likes to move to states of _______ energy and _______ disorder. Spontaneous processes must result in decreasing enthalpy or increasing entropy or both.
Enthalpy
Describes the heat content of a substance (?H)
Nonspontaneous
If E° is negative ΔG° is positive and the reaction is _______.