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Level 146

Structure & Temperature


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ozone
a molecule of oxygen containing three oxygen atoms, a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere that is above the troposphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains ozone layer; 2nd layer
mesosphere
the layer of the atmosphere that is above the stratosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases; 3rd layer
thermosphere
The uppermost layer of the earth's atmosphere where temperatures rise rapidly with altitude; just above the mesosphere; hottest layer; where aurora occures; 4th layer
summer solstice
On June 21- June 22, it is the longest day and shortest night in the Northern Hemisphere due to the fact that the sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer
winter solstice
On December 21-December 22, the shortest day and longest night of the Northern hemisphere due to the fact that the Sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn
autumnal equinox
September 22-23, sun is directly overhead the equator at noon, 12 hour daylight/12 hour night, first day of fall, sun's rays most directly strike the equator, Earth's tilt points at right angle to the sun
vernal equinox
On March 21-22, it is when there is an equal number of hours of day and night due to the fact that the sun is directly over the equator., Occurs in March and marks…
heat
The total energy due to the molecular motions in a substance.
temperature
a measure of how hot or cold something is: specifically a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat or sound from one substance to another substance that it is touching
convection
the process whereby heat is transferred by the mass movement of molecules from one place to the other
Radiation
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
reflection
a wave strikes a boundary and bounces back
scattering
reflection of light in all directions
greenhouse effect
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
isotherm
a line containing points of equal temp
albedo
radiation that is reflected off of a surface
78%
%of Nitrogen in atmosphere
21%
% of Oxygen in the atmosphere
.93%
% Argon in the atmosphere
.039%
% of Carbon Dioxide in atmosphere
Rotation
1 cycle = 1 day, 24 hours; spinning of earth on axis 23 1/2 degrees
Revolution
1 cycle = 1 year, 365 days; earths orbit around sun
sun is vertical to equator
Sun's position to Earth on Vernal equinox
Sun's position to Earth on Winter solstice
sun is vertical to latitude 23 1/2 degrees south
Sun's position to Earth on Summer solstice
sun is vertical to latitude 23 1/2 degrees north
conduction convection radiation
Three types of heat transfer (abc order)
from high temperatures to low temperatures
The way heat flows through matter
weather
State of the atmosphere at any given time and place
climate
Observations of weather over a long period of time in a specific area
0 degrees
Latitude of Equator
23 1/2 degrees north
Latitude of Tropic of Cancer
23 1/2 degrees south
Latitude of Tropic of Capricorn
Earths tilt
23 1/2 degrees
yes
Do objects in a trajectory experience free fall?
absorbed reflected scattered transmitted
name the four results when radiation strikes an object (abc order and past tense)
30%
what % of the solar energy reaching the outer atmosphere is reflected back to space
50%
what % of the solar energy reaching the outer atmosphere is absorbed by the land and sea
20%
what % of the solar energy reaching the outer atmosphere is absorbed by atmosphere and clouds
Carbon dioxide water vapor
what are the major absorbing gasses in the atmosphere ( abc (2))
altitude cloud cover geographic position heating land and water ocean currents
list four factors that contribute to why temperatures vary (abc (5))
land
(fill in the blank) _______heats and cools more rapidly and to higher and lower temperatures than water
water
(fill in the blank) land heats and cools more rapidly and to higher and lower temperatures than _______
leeward
where prevailing winds blow from land to ocean
windward
where prevailing winds blow from the ocean to the land
Earth's heat budget
the division of the solar radiation and what happens to it