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Level 126

Planetary Motion & Gravitation


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centripetal acceleration
a = centripetal acceleration
Inertial Mass
A measure of an object's resistance to any type of force
Gravitational Mass
Mass as used in the law of the universal gravitation; the quantity that measures an object's response to gravitational force
True
An equation must have the same units throughout (t or F)
False
(T/F) Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer who confirmed Copernicus's theories by making many observations with his telescope.
Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler started his astronomy career as an assistant to _______.
Kepler's First Law
Planets move in elliptical orbit, with the Sun being one focus of the ellipse.
Kepler's Second Law
As the planet orbits around the Sun, the planet sweeps out an equal amount of area in an equal amount of time.
Kepler's Third Law
Describes the relationship between the average orbital radius and the period of a planet.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between their centers
1798
Cavendish's experiment to find the value of G was performed in _______ .
Newton, Copernicus, Kepler, Brahe
Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Newton
Black Hole
A star that is at least 4 times the size of the sun and all of its hydrogen turns into helium. Thermonuclear fusion is the hydrogen in a star and when it runs out gra…
According to Kepler's secondary law of planetary motion:
The speed of a planet is greatest when it is closest to the sun.
slower, faster
A planet moving in an elliptical orbit moves _______ when it is farther away from the sun and _______ when it is closer to the sun.
seconds
A car traveling at 7.0 m/s accelerates uniformly at 2.5 m/s^2 to reach a speed of 12.0 m/s. How long does it take this acceleration to occur? (units)
g would be four times as large as the original value.
For any planet, if the planet were to shrink to one-half the planets original radius but maintain a constant mass, what would happen to the value of g on the planet's surface?
The value of g would be one fourth its original value.
For any planet, if the planet were to expand to twice the radius, but maintain a constant mass, what would happen to the value of g on the planet's surface?
Decrease
As the mass of an object decreases, its inertia will __
increase
Increasing temperature always _ rate of reaction
Decreases.
If there is no net torque (angular momentum is conserved), what happens to the *speed* of rotation as the *radius increases*?
Winter
Earth moves more quickly in its orbit during winter in the northern hemisphere than it does during summer. Is Earth closer to the Sun in the winter or in the summer?
Copernicus
_______ was the first astronomer to propose that the Sun is the center of the solar system.
Brahe
_______ proposed that the planets orbit the Sun in circular orbits.
Kepler
_______ used 30 years worth of observations made by other scientists and concluded that the planets orbit the Sun.
Newton
(kg*m)/(s*s)
Third
Kepler's _______ law relates the motion of more than one object about a single body.
First
What order is the stepwise mechanism?
Second
The integrated rate law is a linear equation of the form y=mx+b for a simple _ order reaction